How to format your references using the Genome Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pagel M. Rise of the digital machine. Nature. 2008;452:699.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bardgett RD, van der Putten WH. Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature. 2014;515:505–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kokoouline V, Greene CH, Esry BD. Mechanism for the destruction of H+3 ions by electron impact. Nature. 2001;412:891–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Iyer VR, Horak CE, Scafe CS, Botstein D, Snyder M, Brown PO. Genomic binding sites of the yeast cell-cycle transcription factors SBF and MBF. Nature. 2001;409:533–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barker RM, Puckett JA. Design of Highway Bridges. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Hörner W, Döbert H, Kopp BV, Mitter W, editors. The Education Systems of Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ferrari S, Zanotto V. Defining Representative Building Energy Models. In: Zanotto V, editor. Building Energy Performance Assessment in Southern Europe. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Snakes Probably Lost Their Legs Swimming, Not Burrowing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/snakes-probably-lost-their-legs-swimming-not-burrowing/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroads: Highlights of GAO Report on Freight Rail Industry Performance, Competition, and Capacity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Nov. Report No.: GAO-07-207R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Alsubaihi SI. Challenges for women academic leaders to obtain senior leadership positions in higher education in Saudi Arabia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Breakaway Church In Talks. New York Times. 2003 Nov 19;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Medicine
AbbreviationGenome Med.
ISSN (online)1756-994X
ScopeGenetics
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine
Genetics(clinical)

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