How to format your references using the Genome Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brody H. Biomaterials. Nature. 2015;519:S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gombosi TI, Ingersoll AP. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. Science. 2010;327:1476–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Thornalley DJR, Elderfield H, McCave IN. Holocene oscillations in temperature and salinity of the surface subpolar North Atlantic. Nature. 2009;457:711–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zehr JP, Bench SR, Carter BJ, Hewson I, Niazi F, Shi T, et al. Globally distributed uncultivated oceanic N2-fixing cyanobacteria lack oxygenic photosystem II. Science. 2008;322:1110–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Uribe S. Frontier Road. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Streffer C. Radioactive Waste: Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal. Gethmann CF, Kamp G, Kröger W, Rehbinder E, Renn O, Röhlig K-J, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mukherjee AB, Bhattacharya P, Sarkar A, Zevenhoven R. Mercury emissions from industrial sources in India and its effects in the environment. In: Mason R, Pirrone N, editors. Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements and Models. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 81–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Study of 100 Billion Animals Finds GMOs Safe [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/comprehensive-study-100-billion-animals-finds-gmos-safe-livestock/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: Planned Funding and Schedule for D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Are Unrealistic. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jul. Report No.: GAO-02-815R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Van Fossen L. The communicative use of iconic face drawings to express emotional and evaluative statements in persons with aphasia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. One Week of Silent Soccer Seems to Be Quite Enough. New York Times. 2002 May 5;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Medicine
AbbreviationGenome Med.
ISSN (online)1756-994X
ScopeGenetics
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine
Genetics(clinical)

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