How to format your references using the Genome Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jardine M. Astronomy. Sunscreen for the young Earth. Science. 2010;327:1206–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ma Y, Lin C. Microbial oxidation of Fe2+ and pyrite exposed to flux of micromolar H₂O₂ in acidic media. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Akbarzadeh A, Qiu C-W, Danner AJ. Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2055.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Srivastava S, Santos A, Critchley K, Kim K-S, Podsiadlo P, Sun K, et al. Light-controlled self-assembly of semiconductor nanoparticles into twisted ribbons. Science. 2010;327:1355–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ananthakrishnan AN, Xavier RJ, Podolsky DK. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Baloian N, Burstein F, Ogata H, Santoro F, Zurita G, editors. Collaboration and Technology: 20th International Conference, CRIWG 2014, Santiago, Chile, September 7-10, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Grinevetsky SR, Zonn IS, Zhiltsov SS, Kosarev AN, Kostianoy AG. D. In: Zonn IS, Zhiltsov SS, Kosarev AN, Kostianoy AG, editors. The Black Sea Encyclopedia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 217–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Tiny Drone Can Autonomously Paint Dot Murals [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Gas Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Observations on the Implementation of the Integrity Management Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-588T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Parsons JR. Throwing a wrench in the translational machinery: Discovery of RNA ligands by fluorescence techniques [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J, Grynbaum MM, Maheshwari S. NBC Woos Advertisers With Megyn Kelly, Its New Morning Anchor. New York Times. 2017 May 15;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Medicine
AbbreviationGenome Med.
ISSN (online)1756-994X
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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