How to format your references using the Genome Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Eyre-Walker A. Evolution. Size does not matter for mitochondrial DNA. Science. 2006;312:537–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Charness G, Fehr E. ECONOMICS. From the lab to the real world. Science. 2015;350:512–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Acuña JL, López-Urrutia Á, Colin S. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science. 2011;333:1627–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Voiculescu O, Bertocchini F, Wolpert L, Keller RE, Stern CD. The amniote primitive streak is defined by epithelial cell intercalation before gastrulation. Nature. 2007;449:1049–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mansour M, Wilhite R, Rowe J. Guide to Ruminant Anatomy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Smits AJ. Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow. Second Edition. Dussauge J-P, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bucher T, Winter R. Taxonomy of Business Process Management Approaches. In: vom Brocke J, Rosemann M, editors. Handbook on Business Process Management 2: Strategic Alignment, Governance, People and Culture. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 93–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Medicine.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Here’s What Hypnosis Does To Your Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Direct Loans Could Save Money and Simplify Program Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: HRD-91-144BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garcia CA. Tracking chemistry self-efficacy and achievement in a preparatory chemistry course [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Syndergaard Stumbles en Route to a Potential Wild-Card Start. New York Times. 2016 Sep 20;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Medicine
AbbreviationGenome Med.
ISSN (online)1756-994X
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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