How to format your references using the Genome Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Steinhardt P. Big Bang blunder bursts the multiverse bubble. Nature. 2014;510:9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Verhulst S, Tinbergen JM. Variation in food supply, time of breeding, and energy expenditure in birds. Science. 2001;294:471.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Patkowski K, Spirko V, Szalewicz K. On the elusive twelfth vibrational state of beryllium dimer. Science. 2009;326:1382–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kenney GE, Dassama LMK, Pandelia M-E, Gizzi AS, Martinie RJ, Gao P, et al. The biosynthesis of methanobactin. Science. 2018;359:1411–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heller D. Hairspray. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Koh JTKV, Dunstan BJ, Silvera-Tawil D, Velonaki M, editors. Cultural Robotics: First International Workshop, CR 2015, Held as Part of IEEE RO-MAN 2015, Kobe, Japan, August 31, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wildman JL, Qureshi RA, Salazar M, Salas E. Educational Approaches Across Cultures: Consequences for International I/O Programs. In: Griffith RL, Thompson LF, Armon BK, editors. Internationalizing the Curriculum in Organizational Psychology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Medicine.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Swaddling May Increase Risk Of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, According To Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Works Consolidation: Jacksonville Naval Public Works Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Dec. Report No.: NSIAD-93-76FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ghafoori E. Wavelet transform and neural network [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Indelible Name Added to a Roster of Regrets. New York Times. 2011 Jan 29;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Medicine
AbbreviationGenome Med.
ISSN (online)1756-994X
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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