How to format your references using the Nucleus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nucleus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vrakking M. Journal club. A physicist discusses how to visualize a molecule changing shape. Nature 2010; 465:271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaidos EJ, Nimmo F. Tectonics and water on Europa. Nature 2000; 405:637.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glazier AM, Nadeau JH, Aitman TJ. Finding genes that underlie complex traits. Science 2002; 298:2345–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang P, Xiao BB, Hou XL, Zhu YF, Jiang Q. Layered SiC sheets: a potential catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Sci Rep 2014; 4:3821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wuestenberg K. Clinical Small Animal Care. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Lin Z. Probability Inequalities. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Morgenstern R, Morgenstern C. Assessment and Selection of the Appropriate Individualized Technique for Endoscopic Lumbar Disc Surgery. In: Menchetti PPM, editor. Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Lumbar Spine. London: Springer; 2014. page 107–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nucleus.

Blog post
Carpineti A. This Distant Galaxy Is A Star-Forming Champion [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rural Children: Increasing Poverty Rates Pose Educational Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarthy AC. Tangle towns tie-breaker: A multidimensional knapsack study. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Karr M. JAN. 15, 2006: Thanks for The Memoirs. New York Times2010; :F15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNucleus
ISSN (print)1949-1034
ISSN (online)1949-1042
ScopeCell Biology

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