How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, Medical marijuana: Showdown at the cannabis corral, Nature. 525 (2015) S15-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.A. Holm, S.M. Foiles, How grain growth stops: a mechanism for grain-growth stagnation in pure materials, Science. 328 (2010) 1138–1141.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Lee, R. Habas, C. Abate-Shen, MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis, Science. 304 (2004) 1675–1678.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.M. Morris, M.S. Rappé, S.A. Connon, K.L. Vergin, W.A. Siebold, C.A. Carlson, S.J. Giovannoni, SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities, Nature. 420 (2002) 806–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Lloret, G. Shulman, R.M. Love, Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, 2013.
An edited book
S.K. Bhowmik, Financial Inclusion of the Marginalised: Street Vendors in the Urban Economy, Springer India, New Delhi, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Clerbout, S. Rahman, The Dialogical Take on the Axiom of Choice, and Its Translation into CTT, in: S. Rahman (Ed.), Linking Game-Theoretical Approaches with Constructive Type Theory: Dialogical Strategies, CTT Demonstrations and the Axiom of Choice, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 53–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Wasps Use Facial Recognition To Identify Intruders, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Automated Welfare Systems: Historical Costs and Projections, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.M. Nguyen, Valuation effects and external adjustment, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Kepner, A 105-M.P.H. Fastball? Nice. What Else You Got?, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B
ISSN (print)0168-583X
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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