How to format your references using the Northeastern Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Northeastern Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moynihan, D. 2013. A central agency is crucial for disaster response. Nature 495:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheney, R.E., and O.C. Rodriguez. 2001. Cell biology. A switch to release the motor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293:1263–1264.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, X., Z. Zhou, and R.O. Prum. 2001. Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers. Nature 410:200–204.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoshino, T., G. Manthilake, T. Matsuzaki, and T. Katsura. 2008. Dry mantle transition zone inferred from the conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 451:326–329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann, R.B., and H.D. Lehmann. 2015. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
L’Abate, L. (Ed.). 2012. Paradigms in Theory Construction. Springer, New York, NY. XIV, 458 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Garini, Y., and E. Tauber. 2013. Spectral Imaging: Methods, Design, and Applications. Pp. 111–161, In R. Liang (Ed.). Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies: Design and Applications. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Northeastern Naturalist.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Scientists have developed a prototype for self-replicating robots. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available online at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Highway Funding: The Federal Highway Administration’s Funding Apportionment Model. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, M. 2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Building Literature. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
As Told to. 2007. WHY WE TRAVEL | MOSCOW. New York Times7 January 2007:517.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moynihan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cheney and Rodriguez 2001, Moynihan 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheney and Rodriguez 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshino et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleNortheastern Naturalist
AbbreviationNortheast. Nat. (Steuben)
ISSN (print)1092-6194
ISSN (online)1938-5307
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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