How to format your references using the Northeastern Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Northeastern Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simon, J.A. 2009. Transcription. Sweet silencing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325:45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bellingham, J.G., and K. Rajan. 2007. Robotics in remote and hostile environments. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318:1098–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lund, D.C., J. Lynch-Stieglitz, and W.B. Curry. 2006. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium. Nature 444:601–604.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Du, K., S. Herzig, R.N. Kulkarni, and M. Montminy. 2003. TRB3: a tribbles homolog that inhibits Akt/PKB activation by insulin in liver. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:1574–1577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacaze, P.C., and J.-C. Lacroix. 2014. Non-Volatile Memories. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meier, G.E.A., K.R. Sreenivasan, and H.-J. Heinemann (Eds.). 2006. IUTAM Symposium on One Hundred Years of Boundary Layer Research: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at DLR-Göttingen, Germany, August 12-14, 2004. Vol. 129. Solid mechanics and its applications, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. XI, 494 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Tong, L., L. Zhou, and J. Tang. 2014. Frequency Setting of Urban Mass Transit Based on Passenger Flow Along the Entire Line. Pp. 59–65, In H. Xia and Y. Zhang (Eds.). The 2nd International Symposium on Rail Transit Comprehensive Development (ISRTCD) Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Northeastern Naturalist.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Ridiculously Big Alligator Spotted Strolling Across Golf Course In Florida. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available online at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Medical ADP Systems: Changes in Composite Health Care System’s Deployment Strategy Are Unwise. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wonnacott, C.J. 2017. Ambiguity in Theory and Neutrality in Practice: The Allied Intervention and the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2016. Harshing the Mellow of Angsty Hipsters. New York Times15 September 2016:C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simon 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bellingham and Rajan 2007, Simon 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bellingham and Rajan 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Du et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNortheastern Naturalist
AbbreviationNortheast. Nat. (Steuben)
ISSN (print)1092-6194
ISSN (online)1938-5307
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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