How to format your references using the Northeastern Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Northeastern Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahmed, F. 2010. Epigenetics: Tales of adversity. Nature 468:S20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neronov, A., and I. Vovk. 2010. Evidence for strong extragalactic magnetic fields from Fermi observations of TeV blazars. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328:73–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burkett, V., C.G. Groat, and D. Reed. 2007. Hurricanes not the key to a sustainable coast. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315:1366–1368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Milne, G.A., J.L. Davis, J.X. Mitrovica, H.G. Scherneck, J.M. Johansson, M. Vermeer, and H. Koivula. 2001. Space-geodetic constraints on glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291:2381–2385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avdeef, A. 2012. Absorption and Drug Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Azar, A.T. (Ed.). 2013. Modeling and Control of Dialysis Systems: Volume 2: Biofeedback Systems and Soft Computing Techniques of Dialysis. Vol. 405. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XXVIII, 860 p. 174 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Housden, R.J., A. Arujuna, Y. Ma, N. Nijhof, G. Gijsbers, R. Bullens, M. O’Neill, M. Cooklin, C.A. Rinaldi, J. Gill, S. Kapetanakis, J. Hancock, M. Thomas, R. Razavi, and K.S. Rhode. 2012. Evaluation of a Real-Time Hybrid Three-Dimensional Echo and X-Ray Imaging System for Guidance of Cardiac Catheterisation Procedures. Pp. 25–32, In N. Ayache, H. Delingette, P. Golland, and K. Mori (Eds.). Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2012: 15th International Conference, Nice, France, October 1-5, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Northeastern Naturalist.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2017. Students Develop Straw That Can Test For Date Rape Drugs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available online at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Airport Financing: Compliance With Federal Grant Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Locicero, L.M. 2014. The Effects of Vertical Casting Position in Reinforced Concrete. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr. 2017. Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life. New York Times18 April 2017:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ahmed 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ahmed 2010, Neronov and Vovk 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neronov and Vovk 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Milne et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleNortheastern Naturalist
AbbreviationNortheast. Nat. (Steuben)
ISSN (print)1092-6194
ISSN (online)1938-5307
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles