How to format your references using the Northeastern Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Northeastern Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coles, P. 2005. The state of the Universe. Nature 433:248–256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cress, C.D., and S. Datta. 2013. Engineering. Nanoscale transistors--just around the gate? Science (New York, N.Y.) 341:140–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koskinen, T.T., A.D. Aylward, and S. Miller. 2007. A stability limit for the atmospheres of giant extrasolar planets. Nature 450:845–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cui, X., Q. Liang, Y. Liang, M. Lu, Y. Ding, and B. Lu. 2014. TR-FRET assays of Huntingtin protein fragments reveal temperature and polyQ length-dependent conformational changes. Scientific reports 4:5601.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iacus, S.M. 2011. Option Pricing and Estimation of Financial Models with R. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pitilakis, K., P. Franchin, B. Khazai, and H. Wenzel (Eds.). 2014. SYNER-G: Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Complex Urban, Utility, Lifeline Systems and Critical Facilities: Methodology and Applications. Vol. 31. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. XXVI, 384 p. 194 illus., 91 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Chibbaro, S., L. Rondoni, and A. Vulpiani. 2014. From Microscopic Reversibility to Macroscopic Irreversibility. Pp. 71–97, In L. Rondoni and A. Vulpiani (Eds.). Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality: The Importance of Being Borderline. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Northeastern Naturalist.

Blog post
Taub, B. 2017. Science Reveals Secrets To Dexterity Of Elephants’ Trunks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available online at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Federal Lands: Enhanced Planning Could Assist Agencies in Managing Increased Use of Off-Highway Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winkelhake, B. 2015. Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. 2016. Up for Anyting: The Common Swift, Ever in the Air. New York Times27 October 2016:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coles 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Coles 2005, Cress and Datta 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cress and Datta 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNortheastern Naturalist
AbbreviationNortheast. Nat. (Steuben)
ISSN (print)1092-6194
ISSN (online)1938-5307
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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