How to format your references using the Northeastern Naturalist citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Northeastern Naturalist. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonso, J.-M. 2006. Neuroscience. Neurons find strength through synchrony in the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:1604–1605.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balskus, E.P., and E.N. Jacobsen. 2007. Asymmetric catalysis of the transannular Diels-Alder reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317:1736–1740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bacles, C.F.E., A.J. Lowe, and R.A. Ennos. 2006. Effective seed dispersal across a fragmented landscape. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311:628.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jaglinski, T., D. Kochmann, D. Stone, and R.S. Lakes. 2007. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315:620–622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh, A., and S. Berg. 2014. Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Smith, L.M. 2012. Families, Education and Giftedness: Case Studies in the Construction of High Achievement. J. Campbell (Ed.). Vol. 3. Advances in Creativity and Giftedness, SensePublishers, Rotterdam. XXIV, 182 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, T. 2011. “Public Archaeology” in China: A Preliminary Investigation. Pp. 43–56, In K. Okamura and A. Matsuda (Eds.). New Perspectives in Global Public Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Northeastern Naturalist.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. Ancient Asteroid Impacts Yield Evidence For The Nature Of The Early Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available online at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Aviation Security: FAA Preboard Passenger Screening Test Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pahuja, S. 2013. Bandwidth feedback effects on retained movements in young and old adults. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. 1995. The Whole Earth Is at Stake, but It’s Just a Game. New York Times3 September 1995:223.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alonso 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Alonso 2006, Balskus and Jacobsen 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balskus and Jacobsen 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Jaglinski et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNortheastern Naturalist
AbbreviationNortheast. Nat. (Steuben)
ISSN (print)1092-6194
ISSN (online)1938-5307
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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