How to format your references using the North Carolina Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North Carolina Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. Funding woes spell doom for US radio dish. Nature. 2000;404(6773):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reinhart BJ, Bartel DP. Small RNAs correspond to centromere heterochromatic repeats. Science. 2002;297(5588):1831.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chávez AE, Singer JH, Diamond JS. Fast neurotransmitter release triggered by Ca influx through AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Nature. 2006;443(7112):705-708.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jex AR, Liu S, Li B, et al. Ascaris suum draft genome. Nature. 2011;479(7374):529-533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen J. Industrial Catalysis. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Kreuer K-D, ed. Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Chraim F, Pister K. Smart Fence: Decentralized Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Perimeter Security. In: Zuniga M, Dini G, eds. Sensor Systems and Software: 4th International ICST Conference, S-Cube 2013, Lucca, Italy, June 11-12, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013:65-78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North Carolina Medical Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Curious System Could Be The First-Ever Binary Exoplanets. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Besson PS. Affective Organizational Commitment: A Comparative View of the Experience of 5-7 Year Managerial Employees Who Participated in an Employee Identity Network. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Jets Again Look All but Helpless, and Then the Second Half Starts. New York Times. October 30, 2016:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth Carolina Medical Journal
AbbreviationN. C. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0029-2559
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles