How to format your references using the North Carolina Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North Carolina Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Knight PL. Physics. The observation of matter wave fluctuations. Science. 2005;310(5748):631-632.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Viscidi RP, Shah KV. Cancer. A skin cancer virus? Science. 2008;319(5866):1049-1050.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Quattrociocchi W, Caldarelli G, Scala A. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4938.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Malathi K, Dong B, Gale M Jr, Silverman RH. Small self-RNA generated by RNase L amplifies antiviral innate immunity. Nature. 2007;448(7155):816-819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Carvalho MC. Practical Laboratory Automation. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Flew T, Iosifidis P, Steemers J, eds. Global Media and National Policies: The Return of the State. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Arnaiz A, Iung B, Al-Najjar B, et al. A New Integrated E-maintenance Concept. In: Holmberg K, Adgar A, Arnaiz A, Jantunen E, Mascolo J, Mekid S, eds. E-Maintenance. Springer; 2010:61-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North Carolina Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch a Vampire Squid Turn Itself Inside Out. IFLScience. Published October 30, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/watch-vampire-squid-turning-itself-inside-out/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Graduate Medical Education: Trends in Training and Student Debt. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Poudel SR. Models and Algorithms to Solve a Reliable and Congested Biomass Supply Chain Network Designing Problem under Uncertainty. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M. Picture This Bathing Suit. New York Times. July 15, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth Carolina Medical Journal
AbbreviationN. C. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0029-2559
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles