How to format your references using the North Carolina Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North Carolina Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anthes E. Treatment: Marginal gains. Nature. 2014;508(7496):S54-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conley ME, Fruman DA. Genetics. Can cancer drugs treat immunodeficiency? Science. 2013;342(6160):814-815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergmann DC, Lukowitz W, Somerville CR. Stomatal development and pattern controlled by a MAPKK kinase. Science. 2004;304(5676):1494-1497.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsai H, Asadpour R, Blancon JC, et al. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. Science. 2018;360(6384):67-70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maini AK, Agrawal V. Satellite Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Kennedy A. Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites. (León I de, ed.). Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Reed CW. The Chemistry and Physics of the Interface Region and Functionalization. In: Nelson JK, ed. Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites. Springer US; 2010:95-131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North Carolina Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. Hyperfast Spacecraft Could Be Partly Destroyed By Interstellar Dust En Route To Alpha Centauri. IFLScience. Published August 24, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Earth Observing System: Information on NASA’s Selection of Data Centers. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkis B. How Do Highly Engaged Employees and Managers Find Meaning in Their Work? Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kercher S. Lowriding Culture Goes Global. New York Times. December 6, 2015:ST12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth Carolina Medical Journal
AbbreviationN. C. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0029-2559
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles