How to format your references using the North Carolina Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for North Carolina Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hardt W-D. Antibiotics: Homed to the hideout. Nature. 2015;527(7578):309-310.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Otto SP, Jarne P. Evolution. Haploids--hapless or happening? Science. 2001;292(5526):2441-2443.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sander R, Crutzen PJ, von Glasow R. Comment on “Reactions at interfaces as a source of sulfate formation in sea-salt particles” (II). Science. 2004;303(5658):628; author reply 628.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Raisbeck GM, Yiou F, Cattani O, Jouzel J. 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature. 2006;444(7115):82-84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gaisford S, Saunders M. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Cleary S, Stabell IL, eds. New Directions in Thomas Paine Studies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Beckers G, Hannula A. Deborah Britzman. In: Kirylo JD, ed. A Critical Pedagogy of Resistance: 34 Pedagogues We Need to Know. Transgressions. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013:13-16.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for North Carolina Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Scientists Successfully Sequence Complete Genomes Of Two Woolly Mammoths. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/scientists-successfully-sequence-complete-genomes-two-woolly-mammoths/. Published April 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Status of IRS’ Input Processing Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Baciu AB. Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rothenberg B. French Group Suspends Three Players for Unprofessional Behavior. New York Times. September 1, 2016:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNorth Carolina Medical Journal
AbbreviationN. C. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0029-2559
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles