How to format your references using the Nonlinearity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinearity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray L B 2008 Cell signaling. Getting your loops straight. Introduction Science 322 389
A journal article with 2 authors
Sarda P and Guillot B 2005 Breaking of Henry’s law for noble gas and CO2 solubility in silicate melt under pressure Nature 436 95–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll A H and Walter M R 2003 Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin Nature 423 632–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Tsukazaki A, Ohtomo A, Kita T, Ohno Y, Ohno H and Kawasaki M 2007 Quantum Hall effect in polar oxide heterostructures Science 315 1388–91

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuzmeski M 2009 The Connectors (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Böhme R 2013 The Economics of Information Security and Privacy (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Liu H, Coms F D, Zhang J, Gasteiger H A and LaConti A B 2009 Chemical Degradation: Correlations Between Electrolyzer and Fuel Cell Findings Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability ed F N Büchi, M Inaba and T J Schmidt (New York, NY: Springer) pp 71–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinearity.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Captive Orcas Learn To Speak Dolphin IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1987 Department of Transportation: Enhancing Policy and Program Effectiveness Through Improved Management (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon R L 2010 Neural and behavioral correlates of song prosody Doctoral dissertation (Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G 2010 Pettitte’s Words And Character Carry Weight New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinearity
ISSN (print)0951-7715
ISSN (online)1361-6544
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
General Physics and Astronomy
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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