How to format your references using the Nonlinearity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinearity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellsworth W L 2006 Earthquake anniversary. Halfway through Reid’s cycle and counting Science 312 203–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Shchukin D and Möhwald H 2013 Materials science. A coat of many functions Science 341 1458–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Saikia A, Frost D J and Rubie D C 2008 Splitting of the 520-kilometer seismic discontinuity and chemical heterogeneity in the mantle Science 319 1515–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Religa T L, Markson J S, Mayor U, Freund S M V and Fersht A R 2005 Solution structure of a protein denatured state and folding intermediate Nature 437 1053–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb M J 2012 Mathematical Finance (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Waniek-Klimczak E and Shockey L R 2013 Teaching and Researching English Accents in Native and Non-native Speakers (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Axelsson E, Claessen K and Sheeran M 2005 Wired: Wire-Aware Circuit Design Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed D Borrione and W Paul (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 5–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinearity.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Hawaii Wants To Get 100% Of Its Electricity From Renewable Sources by 2045 IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977 National School Lunch Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogue M L 2012 A Case Study of Perspectives on Building School and Community Partnerships Doctoral dissertation (Tampa, FL: University of South Florida)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Poniewozik J 2016 Rebooting the Dawn of Silicon Valley New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinearity
ISSN (print)0951-7715
ISSN (online)1361-6544
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
General Physics and Astronomy
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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