How to format your references using the Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.J. Auerbach, Surface science. Hitting the surface--softly, Science. 294 (2001) 2488–2489.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Elser, E. Bennett, Phosphorus cycle: A broken biogeochemical cycle, Nature. 478 (2011) 29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Beldade, P.M. Brakefield, A.D. Long, Contribution of Distal-less to quantitative variation in butterfly eyespots, Nature. 415 (2002) 315–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.F. Ducatez, C.M. Olinger, A.A. Owoade, S. De Landtsheer, W. Ammerlaan, H.G.M. Niesters, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, R.A.M. Fouchier, C.P. Muller, Avian flu: multiple introductions of H5N1 in Nigeria, Nature. 442 (2006) 37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.F. DeRosa, Foreign Exchange Operations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P.E. North, T. Sander, eds., Vascular Tumors and Developmental Malformations: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Molecular Diagnosis, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
L.G. Nguyen, H.S. Nguyen, Searching for Reductive Attributes in Decision Tables, in: J.F. Peters, A. Skowron, D. Ślȩzak, H.S. Nguyen, J.G. Bazan (Eds.), Transactions on Rough Sets XIX, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems.

Blog post
T. Hale, Stunning Images From The Underwater Photographer Of The Year 2017 Competition, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, At-Risk Youth: School-Community Collaborations Focus on Improving Student Outcomes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Moran, Investigating the circumstellar environments of young stars with the PROMPT polarimeter, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, A Smorgasbord of Empanadas, New York Times. (2007) NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems
AbbreviationNonlinear Anal. Hybrid Syst.
ISSN (print)1751-570X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering

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