How to format your references using the Non-coding RNA Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Non-coding RNA Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Bizzarro, Planetary science. Probing the solar system’s prenatal history, Science. 345 (2014) 620–621.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Ausländer, M. Fussenegger, Synthetic biology. Dynamic genome engineering in living cells, Science. 346 (2014) 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.M. Green, K.J. Finn, J.J. Li, Loss of DNA replication control is a potent inducer of gene amplification, Science. 329 (2010) 943–946.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, A. Zeilinger, Communications: quantum teleportation across the Danube, Nature. 430 (2004) 849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.B. Anderson, R. Johannesson, Understanding Information Transmission, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
A.P. Mitra, C. Sharma, eds., Global Environmental Changes in South Asia: A Regional Perspective, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Kumar, R. Chauhan, Present Status, Challenges and Management of the Japanese Coastal Zone Environment, in: A.L. Ramanathan, P. Bhattacharya, T. Dittmar, M.B.K. Prasad, B.R. Neupane (Eds.), Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 73–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Non-coding RNA Research.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Orbital Antares Rocket Lifts Off Two Years After Disastrous Explosion, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Immigration and Customs Enforcement Needs to Fully Address Significant Infrastructure Modernization Program Management Weaknesses, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.K. Kennedy-Reid, Exploring the Habitus: A Phenomenological Study of Transformative Learning Processes, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. Grimes, Eldar Ryazanov, 88, Dies; Famed Russian Director Was a Master of Satire, New York Times. (2015) B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNon-coding RNA Research
AbbreviationNoncoding RNA Res.
ISSN (print)2468-0540

Other styles