How to format your references using the Non-coding RNA Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Non-coding RNA Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.F. McDonough, Geophysics. Mapping the Earth’s engine, Science. 317 (2007) 1177–1178.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Fredrick, H.F. Noller, Catalysis of ribosomal translocation by sparsomycin, Science. 300 (2003) 1159–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.E. Willner, J. Wang, H. Huang, Applied physics. A different angle on light communications, Science. 337 (2012) 655–656.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.R. Devarapalli, J. Debgupta, V.K. Pillai, M.V. Shelke, C@SiNW/TiO2 core-shell nanoarrays with sandwiched carbon passivation layer as high efficiency photoelectrode for water splitting, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1994.
An edited book
A. Assmann, I. Detmers, eds., Empathy and its Limits, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Gramchev, S. Pilipović, L. Rodino, Global Regularity and Stability in S-Spaces for Classes of Degenerate Shubin Operators, in: B.-W. Schulze, M.W. Wong (Eds.), Pseudo-Differential Operators: Complex Analysis and Partial Differential Equations: International Workshop, York University, Canada, August 4–8, 2008, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2010: pp. 81–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Non-coding RNA Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Amazing 2D Rubens’ Tube Visualizes Sound With a Plane of Fire, IFLScience. (2014).’-tube-visualizes-sound-plane-fire/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, S. 1657 and H.R. 4564, Research and Development Acts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.L. Olson, Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wines, Pennsylvania Lawsuit Is Latest to Call House Redistricting a Partisan Gerrymander, New York Times. (2017) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNon-coding RNA Research
AbbreviationNoncoding RNA Res.
ISSN (print)2468-0540

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