How to format your references using the Non-coding RNA Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Non-coding RNA Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Eberl, Immunology: A is for immunity, Nature. 508 (2014) 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hermisson, A.P. McGregor, Pleiotropic scaling and QTL data, Nature. 456 (2008) E3; discussion E4.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.E. Kaiser, R.V. Intine, M. Dundr, De novo formation of a subnuclear body, Science. 322 (2008) 1713–1717.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Dong, F. Huang, H. Deng, C. Schaffrath, J.B. Spencer, D. O’Hagan, J.H. Naismith, Crystal structure and mechanism of a bacterial fluorinating enzyme, Nature. 427 (2004) 561–565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Robson Wright, An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
B. Fichet, D. Piccolo, R. Verde, M. Vichi, eds., Classification and Multivariate Analysis for Complex Data Structures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Olschewski, A. Olschewski, Pulmonary Hypertension, in: I. Wakabayashi, K. Groschner (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Concepts in Cardiovascular Health: Volume III: Cardiovascular Events, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 97–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Non-coding RNA Research.

Blog post
K. Evans, Navy-Trained Dolphins To Help Find And Rescue Endangered Vaquita Porpoises, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Management Improvement in the Federal Government, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Garcia, Tracking chemistry self-efficacy and achievement in a preparatory chemistry course, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Hoffman, David Lynch Has a Great Idea for a Movie, New York Times. (2013) MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNon-coding RNA Research
AbbreviationNoncoding RNA Res.
ISSN (print)2468-0540

Other styles