How to format your references using the Nitric Oxide citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nitric Oxide. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Bressanelli, Structural biology. Kickstarting a viral RNA polymerase, Science. 347 (2015) 715–716.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Wang, J. Overgaard, Ecology. The heartbreak of adapting to global warming, Science. 315 (2007) 49–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Gerke, K. Lorenz, B. Cohen, Genetic interactions between transcription factors cause natural variation in yeast, Science. 323 (2009) 498–501.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Li, C.K. Tsang, M. Watkins, P.G. Bertram, X.F.S. Zheng, Nutrient regulates Tor1 nuclear localization and association with rDNA promoter, Nature. 442 (2006) 1058–1061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Padgett, Profiling the Fraudster, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
S. Dodds, R.A. Ankeny, eds., Big Picture Bioethics: Developing Democratic Policy in Contested Domains, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A.-S.K. Pathan, C.S. Hong, Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in: S. Misra, I. Woungang, S. Chandra Misra (Eds.), Guide to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Springer, London, 2009: pp. 59–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nitric Oxide.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Mosquitos Captured In High-Speed Reveal Flight Unlike Any Other Insect, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Handling of Bid Protests Involving Automatic Data Processing Equipment Procurements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Moshfegh, The multidimensional wellbeing assessment: Preliminary validation in an Iranian sample, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, M.W. Walsh, Buying a Gun? States Consider Insurance Rule, New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNitric Oxide
AbbreviationNitric Oxide
ISSN (print)1089-8603
Cancer Research
Clinical Biochemistry

Other styles