How to format your references using the Nitric Oxide citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nitric Oxide. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.P. Murphy, Tumbleweeds and indelicate questions, Nature. 494 (2013) 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.J. Dupuy, A.L. Kraus, Distances, luminosities, and temperatures of the coldest known substellar objects, Science. 341 (2013) 1492–1495.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.Z. Jacobson, W.G. Colella, D.M. Golden, Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles, Science. 308 (2005) 1901–1905.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Gandin, A. Miluzio, A.M. Barbieri, A. Beugnet, H. Kiyokawa, P.C. Marchisio, S. Biffo, Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 is rate-limiting in translation, growth and transformation, Nature. 455 (2008) 684–688.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Morsali, L. Hashemi, Main Group Metal Coordination Polymers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
G. Bebis, R. Boyle, B. Parvin, D. Koracin, Y. Kuno, J. Wang, J.-X. Wang, R. Pajarola, P. Lindstrom, A. Hinkenjann, M.L. Encarnação, C.T. Silva, D. Coming, eds., Advances in Visual Computing: 5th International Symposium, ISVC 2009, Las Vegas, NV, USA, November 30 - December 2, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Finthammer, C. Beierle, Using Equivalences of Worlds for Aggregation Semantics of Relational Conditionals, in: B. Glimm, A. Krüger (Eds.), KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nitric Oxide.

Blog post
E. Andrew, An Alternative to Animal Testing in Pharmaceuticals?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: GSA’s Estimates of FTS2001 Revenues Are Reasonable, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Thomas-Whitman, Treading water: Civic engagement efforts in a time of budget crisis at a public university, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Kelly, A. Stevenson, Doubt After Health Care Defeat Briefly Sends Stocks Tumbling, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNitric Oxide
AbbreviationNitric Oxide
ISSN (print)1089-8603
Cancer Research
Clinical Biochemistry

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