How to format your references using the Nigerian Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fairley P. Energy storage: Power revolution. Nature. 2015;526(7575):S102-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yaghoubi A, Mélinon P. Tunable synthesis and in situ growth of silicon-carbon mesostructures using impermeable plasma. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1083.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanderson MJ, McMahon MM, Steel M. Terraces in phylogenetic tree space. Science. 2011;333(6041):448-450.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao ZY, Liu MF, Li X, et al. Experimental observation of ferrielectricity in multiferroic DyMn2O5. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee G. Bioethics for Beginners. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Ramírez AF, Ben Arous G, Ferrari PA, Newman CM, Sidoravicius V, Vares ME, eds. Topics in Percolative and Disordered Systems. Vol 69. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Vehlow A, Storch K, Matzke D, Cordes N. Molecular Targeting of Integrins and Integrin-Associated Signaling Networks in Radiation Oncology. In: Baumann M, Krause M, Cordes N, eds. Molecular Radio-Oncology. Recent Results in Cancer Research. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016:89-106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Medical Journal.

Blog post
Taub B. Vitamin Found To Halt Aging In Muscle Tissues And Increase Lifespan. IFLScience. Published May 4, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Implementation of IT Reform Law and Related Initiatives Can Help Improve Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maitland J. Differences in Perceived Organizational Justice Based Upon Overall Performance Appraisal Ratings. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. More Teams Would Ruin a Great Thing. New York Times. March 19, 2010:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Medical Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0300-1652
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles