How to format your references using the Nigerian Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Vanderah TA. Materials science. Talking ceramics. Science. 2002;298(5596):1182-1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Davis MB, Shaw RG. Range shifts and adaptive responses to Quaternary climate change. Science. 2001;292(5517):673-679.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Huffard CL, Boneka F, Full RJ. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. Science. 2005;307(5717):1927.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Uehara T, Nakamura T, Yao D, et al. S-nitrosylated protein-disulphide isomerase links protein misfolding to neurodegeneration. Nature. 2006;441(7092):513-517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Terré M, Pischella M, Vivier E. Wireless Telecommunication Systems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Budruk M, Phillips R, eds. Quality-of-Life Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Vol 43. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Petersson B, Vamling K. Vanished in the Haze: White Elephants, Environmental Degradation and Circassian Marginalization in Post-Olympics Sochi. In: Makarychev A, Yatsyk A, eds. Mega Events in Post-Soviet Eurasia: Shifting Borderlines of Inclusion and Exclusion. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016:59-76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Medical Journal.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Millions of Dog Mummies Discovered in Catacombs of Anubis. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Approaches to Mitigate Freight Congestion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Harvey SL. From “The Man With the Hoe” to “Tobacco Road”: Class, Poverty and Religion and the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Barron J. When a Brooklyn Graveyard Can’t Expand Outward, It Looks Within. New York Times. June 22, 2017:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Medical Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0300-1652
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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