How to format your references using the Nigerian Medical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nigerian Medical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. Discovery of giant asteroid gives Pluto a rocky outlook. Nature. 2002;419(6907):546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melville WK, Matusov P. Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature. 2002;417(6884):58-63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rastogi D, Suzuki M, Greally JM. Differential epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in childhood obesity-associated asthma. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2164.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kunjithapatham R, Karthikeyan S, Geschwind J-F, et al. Reversal of anchorage-independent multicellular spheroid into a monolayer mimics a metastatic model. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston M. Powell-Smith and Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Yager RR, Kacprzyk J, Beliakov G, eds. Recent Developments in the Ordered Weighted Averaging Operators: Theory and Practice. Vol 265. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvi SSD, Vivek SS, Shukla D, Rangan Chandrasekaran P. Efficient and Provably Secure Certificateless Multi-receiver Signcryption. In: Baek J, Bao F, Chen K, Lai X, eds. Provable Security: Second International Conference, ProvSec 2008, Shanghai, China, October 30 - November 1, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2008:52-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nigerian Medical Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. Siberia’s “Doorway To The Underworld” Is Very Quickly Getting Bigger. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost for Automatic Data Processing Activities in the Federal Government. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meyertholen AN. Blurring the lines: The invention of abstract in German literature since 1800. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Fire Survivor and a Possible Olympian: A Horse Named Neville. New York Times. January 13, 2012:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNigerian Medical Journal
AbbreviationNiger. Med. J.
ISSN (print)0300-1652
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles