How to format your references using the NFS Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NFS Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Mawer, Science in literature, Nature. 434 (2005) 297–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.R. Grimmer, J.F. Costello, Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop, Nature. 529 (2016) 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.J. Murtagh, P.S. Dyer, P.D. Crittenden, Sex and the single lichen, Nature. 404 (2000) 564.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.L. Watson, R. Püttmann-Holgado, F. Thomas, D.L. Lamar, M. Hughes, M. Kondo, V.I. Rebel, D. Schmucker, Extensive diversity of Ig-superfamily proteins in the immune system of insects, Science. 309 (2005) 1874–1878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kossiakoff, W.N. Sweet, Systems Engineering Principles and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
H. Jiang, W. Ding, M. Ali, X. Wu, eds., Advanced Research in Applied Artificial Intelligence: 25th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2012, Dalian, China, June 9-12, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Yatake, T. Aoki, Automatic Generation of Model Checking Scripts Based on Environment Modeling, in: J. van de Pol, M. Weber (Eds.), Model Checking Software: 17th International SPIN Workshop, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 58–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NFS Journal.

Blog post
J. Davis, Shift In Human Ancestors’ Diet Earlier Than Previously Thought, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Korobenko, Advanced Fluid–Structure Interaction Techniques in Application to Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Review: In ‘Southwest of Salem,’ 4 Women Convicted of Sexual Assault Fight for Justice, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNFS Journal
ISSN (print)2352-3646

Other styles