How to format your references using the NFS Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NFS Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.A. Bland, Astronomy. Small-scale observations tell a cosmological story, Science. 320 (2008) 61–62.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.A. Mongiat, A.F. Schinder, Neuroscience. A price to pay for adult neurogenesis, Science. 344 (2014) 594–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Hasnaoui, H. Van Swygenhoven, P.M. Derlet, Dimples on nanocrystalline fracture surfaces as evidence for shear plane formation, Science. 300 (2003) 1550–1552.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Jin, J. Kim, M.I.B. Utama, E.C. Regan, H. Kleemann, H. Cai, Y. Shen, M.J. Shinner, A. Sengupta, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. Tongay, A. Zettl, F. Wang, Imaging of pure spin-valley diffusion current in WS2-WSe2 heterostructures, Science. 360 (2018) 893–896.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Pelz, Mechatronic Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
A. Geissbühler, J. Demongeot, M. Mokhtari, B. Abdulrazak, H. Aloulou, eds., Inclusive Smart Cities and e-Health: 13th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2015, Geneva, Switzerland, June 10-12, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Pearson, Characteristics of Pre-College Engineering Education in the United States, in: M.J. de Vries, L. Gumaelius, I.-B. Skogh (Eds.), Pre-University Engineering Education, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2016: pp. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NFS Journal.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Possible Burial Bed Of Jesus Christ Excavated In Jerusalem, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Funderburk, Modern Variation in Predation Intensity: Constraints on Assessing Predator-Prey Relationships in Paleoecologic Reconstructions, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I.H. Fiske, CHATTERTON, New York Times. (1905) REVIEW OF BOOKSBR509.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNFS Journal
ISSN (print)2352-3646

Other styles