How to format your references using the Scandinavian Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoeijmakers, J. H. 2001. ‘Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer’, Nature 411, 366–74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hagan, J. & Palloni, A. 2006. ‘Social science. Death in Darfur’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 1578–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldreich, P., Lithwick, Y. & Sari, R. 2002. ‘Formation of Kuiper-belt binaries by dynamical friction and three-body encounters’, Nature 420, 643–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ding, J. et al. 2014. ‘Tuneable complementary metamaterial structures based on graphene for single and multiple transparency windows’, Scientific reports 4, 6128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisgaard, S. & Kulahci, M. 2011. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example: Bisgaard/Time Series by Example. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gašević, D. 2006. Model Driven Architecture and Ontology Development. Djurić, D. & Devedžić, V., eds., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Surovell, T. A. & Waguespack, N. M. 2009. ‘Human Prey Choice in the Late Pleistocene and Its Relation to Megafaunal Extinctions’, in Haynes, G., ed. American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Political Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016. ‘Six Different Ways To Think About “Extinction”’, IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. Traffic Safety: Alcohol Ignition Interlocks Are Effective While Installed; Less Is Known about How to Increase Installation Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shibata, C. L. 2017. Building positive body image in adolescent girls: An evaluation of a body image prevention program. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2008. ‘Finishing Tarrytown Hall, in Nick of Time’, New York Times, WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoeijmakers 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hoeijmakers 2001; Hagan & Palloni 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hagan & Palloni 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ding et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Political Studies
AbbreviationScan. Polit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0080-6757
ISSN (online)1467-9477
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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