How to format your references using the Scandinavian Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. 2009. ‘Functional Neuroscience: How to get ahead in imaging’, Nature 458, 925–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale, J. E. & Earle, P. S. 2000. ‘Fine-scale heterogeneity in the Earth’s inner core’, Nature 404, 273–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gosse, N. J., Nevin, L. M. & Baier, H. 2008. ‘Retinotopic order in the absence of axon competition’, Nature 452, 892–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O’Neal, K. R. et al. 2014. ‘Pressure-induced magnetic crossover driven by hydrogen bonding in CuF₂(H₂O)₂(3-chloropyridine)’, Scientific reports 4, 6054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Talbot, D. B. 2012. Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nordenstreng, K. 2016. A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics. Björk, U. J. et al., eds., London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Carlson, D. L. 2012. ‘The Rituals of Everyday Life’, in Carlson, D. L., ed. Volunteers of America, Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Political Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. ‘The Global Economy Grew Last Year Without a Rise In CO2 Emissions’, IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977. Food Update, Volume 2, Issue 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Widner, C. M. 2010. Top -dog to bottom -dog: A study of middle to high school transition and teachers’ philosophies and practices as applied to stage -environment fit theory. Doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. 2017. ‘Buffett Bets on Energy With $9 Billion Bid for Texas Utility’, New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Blow 2009; Vidale & Earle 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vidale & Earle 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Neal et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Political Studies
AbbreviationScan. Polit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0080-6757
ISSN (online)1467-9477
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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