How to format your references using the Scandinavian Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davidson, E. H. 2006. ‘The sea urchin genome: where will it lead us?’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 314, 939–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiggins, F. M. & Hurst, G. D. D. 2011. ‘Microbiology. Rapid insect evolution by symbiont transfer’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 332, 185–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C., Zhang, X. & Cao, Z. 2005. ‘Triangular and Fibonacci number patterns driven by stress on core/shell microstructures’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, 909–11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wardemann, H. et al. 2003. ‘Predominant autoantibody production by early human B cell precursors’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, 1374–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doldi, L. 2005. Validation of Communications Systems with SDL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Singh, R. B. & Hietala, R. eds. 2014. Livelihood Security in Northwestern Himalaya: Case Studies from Changing Socio-economic Environments in Himachal Pradesh, India. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Thalmann, D. & Musse, S. R. 2007. ‘Virtual Human Animation’, in Musse, S. R., ed. Crowd Simulation, London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Political Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. ‘Is Iceland’s next volcanic eruption about to happen?’, IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004. Information Technology Management: Improvements Needed in Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Governmentwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brookman, D. 2009. Establishing context for referents in online chatroom conversations. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. 2011. ‘A Proposal for Drawing a Clearer Picture of Public Pension Finances’, New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davidson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Davidson 2006; Jiggins & Hurst 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiggins & Hurst 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Wardemann et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Political Studies
AbbreviationScan. Polit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0080-6757
ISSN (online)1467-9477
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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