How to format your references using the Scandinavian Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benderly, B. L. 2005. ‘Not your father’s postdoc’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 308, 717–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirz, J. & Miao, J. 2012. ‘David Sayre (1924-2012)’, Nature 484, 38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto, H., Watanabe, Y. & Kumazawa, K. 2004. ‘Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago’, Nature 429, 395–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hussey, N. E. et al. 2003. ‘A coherent three-dimensional Fermi surface in a high-transition-temperature superconductor’, Nature 425, 814–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matlock, M. D. & Morgan, R. A. 2011. Ecological Engineering Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Golen, K. ed. 2010. The Rho GTPases in Cancer. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bachrach, Y. & Shah, N. 2013. ‘Reliability Weighted Voting Games’, in Vöcking, B., ed. Algorithmic Game Theory: 6th International Symposium, SAGT 2013, Aachen, Germany, October 21-23, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Political Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016. ‘Researchers Plan On Resurrecting The Extinct Great Auk’, IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992. Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papacostaki, M. 2010. Under the black sun. Doctoral dissertation. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steven Lee Myers; Erin & Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article 2004. ‘Suicide Bomber Kills 9 at Moscow Subway Station’, New York Times, A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benderly 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Benderly 2005; Kirz & Miao 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirz & Miao 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hussey et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Political Studies
AbbreviationScan. Polit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0080-6757
ISSN (online)1467-9477
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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