How to format your references using the Neurosurgery Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America (NEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kubin Ladislas. Materials science. Collective defect behavior under stress. Science 2006;312(5775):864–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Small Eric M., Olson Eric N. Pervasive roles of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology. Nature 2011;469(7330):336–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tarlinton Rachael E., Meers Joanne., Young Paul R. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 2006;442(7098):79–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Liu Ming., Hoffman Jason., Wang Jing., et al. Non-volatile ferroelastic switching of the Verwey transition and resistivity of epitaxial Fe3O4/PMN-PT (011). Sci Rep 2013;3:1876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Heads Gary. Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Russell Christopher., Angelopoulos Vassilis. The ARTEMIS Mission. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Liddle Stephen W., Embley David W. A Common Core for Active Conceptual Modeling for Learning from Surprises. In: Chen Peter P., Wong Leah Y., editors. Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning: Next Generation Learning-Base System Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America.

Blog post
1.
Andrew Elise. The Road To Paris: Three Myths About International Climate Talks. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/road-paris-three-myths-about-international-climate-talks/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. B-2 Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Harvey Shannon Lorraine. From “The Man With the Hoe” to “Tobacco Road”: Class, Poverty and Religion and the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow Kelly. Preserving the Work of the Artful Tagger. New York Times 2001:143.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1042-3680
ISSN (online)1558-1349
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Surgery

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