How to format your references using the Neurosurgery Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America (NEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nye Mary Jo. Portraits of science. “The most versatile physicist of his generation.” Science 2002;296(5565):49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore Kateri A., Lemischka Ihor R. Stem cells and their niches. Science 2006;311(5769):1880–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian Brian C., Longarte Asier., Zwier Timothy S. Conformational dynamics in a dipeptide after single-mode vibrational excitation. Science 2002;296(5577):2369–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oury Franck., Murakami Yasunori., Renaud Jean-Sebastien., et al. Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map. Science 2006;313(5792):1408–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andresen Retta., Oades Lindsay G., Caputi Peter. Psychological Recovery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Blewett Richard. Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashar Navin G., Golwalkar Kiran R. Sulfonating Agents and Derivatives Based on Sulfuric Acid. In: Golwalkar Kiran R., editor. A Practical Guide to the Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid, Oleums, and Sulfonating Agents. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 35–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America.

Blog post
O`Callaghan Jonathan. Asteroid Day Officially Recognized As June 30 By United Nations. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Reporting: NASA Can Improve Compliance With GAO Standards and Treasury Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond Diandra Simone. When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow Linda. Nassau Comptroller Warns County on Finances. New York Times 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1042-3680
ISSN (online)1558-1349
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles