How to format your references using the Neurosurgery Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America (NEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonetta Laura. Gene expression: an expression of interest. Nature 2006;440(7088):1233–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conte Maureen H., Weber John C. Plant biomarkers in aerosols record isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis. Nature 2002;417(6889):639–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wessling M., Morcillo L. Garrigós., Abdu S. Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities. Sci Rep 2014;4:4294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cheutin Thierry., McNairn Adrian J., Jenuwein Thomas., et al. Maintenance of stable heterochromatin domains by dynamic HP1 binding. Science 2003;299(5607):721–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico Wayne J. Electrical Estimating Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Gelenbe Erol., Lent Ricardo. Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang Yanfeng., Naqvi Syed Mohsen., Wang Wenwu., et al. Frequency Domain Blind Source Separation Based on Independent Vector Analysis with a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Source Prior. In: Naik Ganesh R., Wang Wenwu, editors. Blind Source Separation: Advances in Theory, Algorithms and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 131–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Davis Josh. Why Do Light Touches Make You Itchy? IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acid Rain: Delays and Management Changes in the Federal Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens April H. William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His life and career in music education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950–2012. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow Linda. Citing Taxes, Some Seek Fire District’s Demise. New York Times 2009:LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1042-3680
ISSN (online)1558-1349
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles