How to format your references using the Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batson PE. Applied physics. Plasmonic modes revealed. Science. 2012;335(6064):47-48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michaels D, Wagner W. Science and government. Disclosure in regulatory science. Science. 2003;302(5653):2073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miake J, Marbán E, Nuss HB. Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer. Nature. 2002;419(6903):132-133.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wijnands R, Van Der Klis M, Homan J, Chakrabarty D, Markwardt CB, Morgan EH. Quasi-periodic X-ray brightness fluctuations in an accreting millisecond pulsar. Nature. 2003;424(6944):44-47.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Unmehopa M, Vemuri K, Bennett A. Parlay/OSA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Verma VC, Gange AC, eds. Advances in Endophytic Research. Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Deutscher G. Point Contact Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Systems. In: Avella A, Mancini F, eds. Strongly Correlated Systems: Experimental Techniques. Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Springer; 2015:111-135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Davis J. More Younger People In The UK Are Watching Planet Earth II Than The X Factor. IFLScience. Published December 2, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Enhanced Data Collection Could Help FCC Better Monitor Competition in the Wireless Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam NN. The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. More Than the Sum of Its Parts. New York Times. February 13, 2017:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery
ISSN (print)0148-396X
ISSN (online)1524-4040
ScopeClinical Neurology

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