How to format your references using the Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenchel T. Microbiology. Biogeography for bacteria. Science. 2003;301(5635):925-926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen JH, Christensen OB. Climate modelling: Severe summertime flooding in Europe. Nature. 2003;421(6925):805-806.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finlay JC, Small GE, Sterner RW. Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes. Science. 2013;342(6155):247-250.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Renault M, Shintu L, Piotto M, Caldarelli S. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee Abbott M, McKinney J. Understanding and Applying Research Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Morrell PD, Popejoy K, eds. A Few of Our Favorite Things: Teaching Ideas for K-12 Science Methods Instructors. SensePublishers; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hayakawa R, Kato Y, Sugiura M, Sugiura K, Hashimoto R. Friction Melanosis. In: Chew AL, Maibach HI, eds. Irritant Dermatitis. Springer; 2006:31-35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Taub B. New Research Reveals How Cocaine Affects Your DNA. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young JL. A Community College’s Loss of Accreditation: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Itzkoff D, Bai M, Spitznagel E, et al. The One-Page Magazine. New York Times. September 23, 2012:MM11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery
ISSN (print)0148-396X
ISSN (online)1524-4040
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles