How to format your references using the Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Braun DC. Comment on “Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior.” Science. 2012;336(6079):296; author reply 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yamaguchi KE, Ohmoto H. Comment on “Iron isotope constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic ocean redox state.” Science. 2006;311(5758):177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Leman L, Orgel L, Ghadiri MR. Carbonyl sulfide-mediated prebiotic formation of peptides. Science. 2004;306(5694):283-286.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Muruve DA, Pétrilli V, Zaiss AK, et al. The inflammasome recognizes cytosolic microbial and host DNA and triggers an innate immune response. Nature. 2008;452(7183):103-107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte GS. Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Schmitz TL. Mechanical Vibrations: Modeling and Measurement. 1st ed. (Smith KS, ed.). Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ronzheimer A, Hepperle M, Brezillon J, Brodersen O, Lieser J. Aerodynamic Optimal Engine Integration at the Fuselage Tail of a Generic Business Jet Configuration. In: Dillmann A, Heller G, Kreplin H-P, Nitsche W, Peltzer I, eds. New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics VIII: Contributions to the 17th STAB/DGLR Symposium Berlin, Germany 2010. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design. Springer; 2013:25-32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. New Theory That Many Collisions, Not One, Formed The Moon. IFLScience. Published January 9, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Development of Technical and Spectrum Requirements for Meeting Public Safety Agency Communication Requirements Through 2010, Establishment of Rules and Requirements for Priority Access Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright NC. The association between rheumatoid arthritis, bone strength, and body composition within the women’s health initiative. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B. Corzine Tries a Wall Street Comeback. New York Times. May 18, 2017:BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurosurgery
ISSN (print)0148-396X
ISSN (online)1524-4040
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles