How to format your references using the Neuropsychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuropsychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV. Strength in numbers. Nature. 436(7050), 492–493 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwefel HGL, Türeci HE. Optics. A chaotic approach clears up imaging. Science. 348(6231), 189–190 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacace F, de Petris G, Troiani A. Experimental detection of tetranitrogen. Science. 295(5554), 480–481 (2002).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Marino AM, Pooser RC, Boyer V, Lett PD. Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement. Nature. 457(7231), 859–862 (2009).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith C, Meeking D. How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Foster KA, editor. Molecular Aspects of Botulinum Neurotoxin. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Hens T, Rieger MO. Two-Period Model: State-Preference Approach. In: Financial Economics: A Concise Introduction to Classical and Behavioral Finance. Rieger MO (Ed.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 139–209 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuropsychiatry.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Quantum Refrigerator Breakthrough Might Be Crucial For Future Of Computing [Internet]. IFLScience (2017). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Traffic and Vehicle Safety: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Extend Recent Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung Y-K. A comparison of particle swarm optimization algorithms in data clustering. (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Syndergaard Has to Take Mets’ Offer. New York Times, D5 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuropsychiatry
ISSN (print)1758-2008
ISSN (online)1758-2016
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

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