How to format your references using the Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice C (2011) Perspective: miles to go before we sleep. Nature 474:S8
A journal article with 2 authors
Eisen JA, Fraser CM (2003) Phylogenomics: intersection of evolution and genomics. Science 300:1706–1707
A journal article with 3 authors
Li W-W, Yu H-Q, Rittmann BE (2015) Chemistry: Reuse water pollutants. Nature 528:29–31
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Karhadkar SS, Bova GS, Abdallah N, et al (2004) Hedgehog signalling in prostate regeneration, neoplasia and metastasis. Nature 431:707–712

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welker RW, Nagarajan R, Newberg CE (2005) Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Budruk M, Phillips R (2011) Quality-of-Life Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Miseres V (2015) “The Personal is Political.” In: Gómez L, Horno-Delgado A, Long MK, Silleras-Fernández N (eds) Teaching Gender through Latin American, Latino, and Iberian Texts and Cultures. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 57–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Astronauts Get Taller In Space, But Also Suffer Spinal Damage. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Month In Review: December 1998: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller K (2017) Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S (2000) Op-Art. New York Times A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePeer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
AbbreviationPeer Peer Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1936-6442
ISSN (online)1936-6450
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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