How to format your references using the Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaim W (2005) Chemistry. Odd electron on nitrogen: a metal-stabilized aminyl radical. Science 307:216–217
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson JW, Maier RJ (2002) Molecular hydrogen as an energy source for Helicobacter pylori. Science 298:1788–1790
A journal article with 3 authors
Riedel-Kruse IH, Müller C, Oates AC (2007) Synchrony dynamics during initiation, failure, and rescue of the segmentation clock. Science 317:1911–1915
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Renne PR, Feinberg JM, Waters MR, et al (2005) Geochronology: age of Mexican ash with alleged “footprints.” Nature 438:E7-8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brillson LJ (2016) An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hasegawa Y (2006) Realization Theory and Design of Digital Images. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Konstas AA, González RG, Lev MH (2011) CT Perfusion (CTP). In: González RG, Hirsch JA, Lev MH, et al (eds) Acute Ischemic Stroke: Imaging and Intervention. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 83–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What Happened To The Oil From The Deepwater Horizon Spill? ‘Marine Snow’ Provides A Clue. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Geostationary Weather Satellites: Design Progress Made, but Schedule Uncertainty Needs to be Addressed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang D (2009) Event detection in sensor networks. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P, Shear MD (2017) Shifting Tone, President Saves Dark Words for a Faith’s Fringe. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePeer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
AbbreviationPeer Peer Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1936-6442
ISSN (online)1936-6450
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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