How to format your references using the Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton J (2003) Going into production. Nature 426:727
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirane M, Nakayama KI (2006) Protrudin induces neurite formation by directional membrane trafficking. Science 314:818–821
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiang GY, Hofmann HF, Pryde GJ (2013) Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe. Sci Rep 3:2684
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Meiri M, Huchon D, Bar-Oz G, et al (2013) Ancient DNA and population turnover in southern levantine pigs--signature of the sea peoples migration? Sci Rep 3:3035

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grinshpan L (2012) Solving Enterprise Applications Performance Puzzles. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Schuhmann MU, Czosnyka M (2012) Intracranial Pressure and Brain Monitoring XIV. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Goyal P, Hwang PH (2007) Septal and Turbinate Surgery. In: Kountakis SE, Önerci M (eds) Rhinologic and Sleep Apnea Surgical Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Create Artificial Neuron that Functions Like the Real Thing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-agency Decision Making. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzanares ME (2012) Effect of a preoperative multidisciplinary education program on weight management after bariatric surgery. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Someone Ought To Make a Movie. New York Times SP2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePeer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
AbbreviationPeer Peer Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1936-6442
ISSN (online)1936-6450
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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