How to format your references using the Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocker R (2012) Marine microbes see a sea of gradients. Science 338:628–633
A journal article with 2 authors
Parker AR, Lawrence CR (2001) Water capture by a desert beetle. Nature 414:33–34
A journal article with 3 authors
Poolman B, Geertsma ER, Slotboom D-J (2007) Biochemistry. A missing link in membrane protein evolution. Science 315:1229–1231
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang J, Wang L, Li X, Mao C (2013) Virus activated artificial ECM induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without osteogenic supplements. Sci Rep 3:1242

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni RG (2004) Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Valla G (2010) Hilbert Functions of Filtered Modules. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrarese G, Bini D (2008) Relativistic Kinematics for a Three-Dimensional Continuum. In: Ferrarese G, Bini D (eds) Introduction to Relativistic Continuum Mechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 169–206

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Gluten-Free Foods are no Healthier Than Regular Foods, Study Finds. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) The Federal Software Exchange Program: A Small Step in Improving Program Sharing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta K (2015) An optimized modified booth recoder for efficient design of the add-multiply operator. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Meters Are Running, And Hawking, Too. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePeer-to-Peer Networking and Applications
AbbreviationPeer Peer Netw. Appl.
ISSN (print)1936-6442
ISSN (online)1936-6450
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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