How to format your references using the Neurophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Quay, “Climate change. Ups and downs of CO2 uptake,” Science 298(5602), 2344 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
I. A. Bonnell and W. K. M. Rice, “Star formation around supermassive black holes,” Science 321(5892), 1060–1062 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Q. Gu, S. Cheley, and H. Bayley, “Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity,” Science 291(5504), 636–640 (2001).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Oganesyan et al., “Critical role of TRAF3 in the Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent antiviral response,” Nature 439(7073), 208–211 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Bell, Incremental Software Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2016).
An edited book
H. Kim, Ed., Advances in Technology and Management: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Technology and Management (ICTAM 2012), International Convention Center Jeju, Jeju-Island, Korea, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
R. Loosemore and B. Goertzel, “Why an Intelligence Explosion is Probable,” in Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment, A. H. Eden et al., Eds., pp. 83–98, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurophotonics.

Blog post
J. Fang, “New Species of Extinct River Dolphin Discovered in Panama,” IFLScience, 2 September 2015, <; (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Progress Made in Accelerating Federal Purchases, but Benefits and Costs Remain Uncertain,” RCED-94-161, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. I. Green, “Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Belson and M. Pilon, “Technology Firm From India Will Be New York Marathon Title Sponsor,” in New York Times, p. B17 (2013).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurophotonics
ISSN (print)2329-423X
ISSN (online)2329-4248
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles