How to format your references using the Neurophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Naldini, “Gene therapy returns to centre stage,” Nature 526(7573), 351–360 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. F. Voytas and J. K. Joung, “Plant science. DNA binding made easy,” Science 326(5959), 1491–1492 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Serizawa, K.-I. Hamada, and M. Akashi, “Polymerization within a molecular-scale stereoregular template,” Nature 429(6987), 52–55 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Cabantous et al., “A new protein-protein interaction sensor based on tripartite split-GFP association,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2854 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Choudhry et al., Fixed Income Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014).
An edited book
H. Naunheimer, Automotive Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application, B. Bertsche, J. Ryborz, and W. Novak, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011).
A chapter in an edited book
M. Zhiyanski et al., “Mapping Carbon Storage Using Land Cover/Land Use Data in the Area of Beklemeto, Central Balkan,” in Sustainable Mountain Regions: Challenges and Perspectives in Southeastern Europe, B. Koulov and G. Zhelezov, Eds., pp. 53–65, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurophotonics.

Blog post
J. Davis, “A ‘Hog Apocalypse’ Could Be Heading For Feral Pigs In Texas,” IFLScience, 22 February 2017, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “No Child Left Behind Act: Most Students with Disabilities Participated in Statewide Assessments, but Inclusion Options Could Be Improved,” GAO-05-618, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Gaines, “Perceptions of knowledge sharing within hybrid learning environments: As iron sharpens iron among graduate students,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess and J. H. Davis, “Trump Vows Cuts in Wall St. Rules From Obama Era,” in New York Times, p. A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurophotonics
ISSN (print)2329-423X
ISSN (online)2329-4248
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles