How to format your references using the Neurophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Brugger, “Animal behavior. Chicks with a number sense,” Science 347(6221), 477–478 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
W.-B. Yan and H. Fan, “Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4820 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Rankenburg, A. D. Brandon, and C. R. Neal, “Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon,” Science 312(5778), 1369–1372 (2006).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Söllner et al., “Control of crystal size and lattice formation by starmaker in otolith biomineralization,” Science 302(5643), 282–286 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. A. G. Monks, A. Reed Lajoux, and D. LeBaron, Corporate Valuation for Portfolio Investment, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010).
An edited book
K. Inoue, K. Satoh, and F. Toni, Eds., Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Workshop, CLIMA VII, Hakodate, Japan, May 8-9, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
C. Poupon et al., “Real-Time MR Diffusion Tensor and Q-Ball Imaging Using Kalman Filtering,” in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2007: 10th International Conference, Brisbane, Australia, October 29 - November 2, 2007, Proceedings, Part I, N. Ayache, S. Ourselin, and A. Maeder, Eds., pp. 27–35, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurophotonics.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Failed Mongol Armada Wreck Discovered off Japanese Coast,” IFLScience, 7 July 2015 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Acquisitions: DOD Poised to Enhance Space Capabilities, but Persistent Challenges Remain in Developing Space Systems,” GAO-10-447T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Weygandt, “Extension of Elementary Functions to Zeon Algebras,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Goldstein and B. Protess, “S.E.C. Chairman Expected to Name Two to Key Enforcement Positions,” in New York Times, p. B2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurophotonics
ISSN (print)2329-423X
ISSN (online)2329-4248
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles