How to format your references using the Neurophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Kawaoka, “H5N1: Flu transmission work is urgent,” Nature 482(7384), 155 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
S. N. Pisharody and R. R. Jones, “Probing two-electron dynamics of an atom,” Science 303(5659), 813–815 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Puliga, G. Caldarelli, and S. Battiston, “Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6822 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Sauerwald et al., “RNA-dependent cysteine biosynthesis in archaea,” Science 307(5717), 1969–1972 (2005).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. M. Peinado and J. C. Segura, Speech Recognition Over Digital Channels, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006).
An edited book
K. Schoeffmann et al., Eds., Advances in Multimedia Modeling: 18th International Conference, MMM 2012, Klagenfurt, Austria, January 4-6, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
J. K. Anochie-Boateng et al., “A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa,” in The Roles of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability: Engineering, Environment, and Economics, J. P. Aguiar-Moya et al., Eds., pp. 67–79, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurophotonics.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Your Face Has A ‘Danger Triangle’ That Could Kill You,” IFLScience, 5 July 2016, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Executive Office of the President: Analysis of Mandated Report on Key Information Technology Areas,” GAO-02-779R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. A. Piekielek, “Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Mets Thank Troops In a Meaningful Setting,” in New York Times, p. B11 (2011).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurophotonics
ISSN (print)2329-423X
ISSN (online)2329-4248
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles