How to format your references using the Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nagaosa, N. (2007). Physics. A new state of quantum matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 758–759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zarur, A. J., & Ying, J. Y. (2000). Reverse microemulsion synthesis of nanostructured complex oxides for catalytic combustion. Nature, 403(6765), 65–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werfel, J., Petersen, K., & Nagpal, R. (2014). Designing collective behavior in a termite-inspired robot construction team. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6172), 754–758.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Capelluto, D. G. S., Kutateladze, T. G., Habas, R., Finkielstein, C. V., He, X., & Overduin, M. (2002). The DIX domain targets dishevelled to actin stress fibres and vesicular membranes. Nature, 419(6908), 726–729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deichmann, U. (2005). Flüchten, Mitmachen, Vergessen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Taniar, D., Gervasi, O., Murgante, B., Pardede, E., & Apduhan, B. O. (Eds.). (2010). Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010: International Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, March 23-26, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV (Vol. 6019). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Contucci, P., Giardinà, C., & Nishimori, H. (2009). Spin Glass Identities and the Nishimori Line. In A. B. de Monvel & A. Bovier (Eds.), Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007 (pp. 103–121). Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 9). Herpes Kills Your Butthole Neurons And Makes You Constipated. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Job Access and Reverse Commute: Program Status and Potential Effects of Proposed Legislative Changes (No. GAO-04-934R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R. (2010). The California State University education doctorate: Public policy for the public good (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hennessey, S. (2017, May 16). Did Trump Violate His Oath of Office? New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nagaosa 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Nagaosa 2007; Zarur and Ying 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zarur and Ying 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Capelluto et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroinformatics
ISSN (print)1539-2791
ISSN (online)1559-0089
ScopeInformation Systems
General Neuroscience

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