How to format your references using the Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burrows, A. S. (2014). Highlights in the study of exoplanet atmospheres. Nature, 513(7518), 345–352.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimmer, M. R., & Costello, J. F. (2016). Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop. Nature, 529(7584), 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Omabegho, T., Sha, R., & Seeman, N. C. (2009). A bipedal DNA Brownian motor with coordinated legs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 67–71.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5855), 1387–1388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thornicroft, G., Semrau, M., Alem, A., Drake, R. E., Ito, H., Mari, J., et al. (2011). Community Mental Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hu, Z.-M., & Fraser, C. (Eds.). (2016). Seaweed Phylogeography: Adaptation and Evolution of Seaweeds under Environmental Change (1st ed. 2016.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mañay, N., Cousillas, A. Z., Alvarez, C., & Heller, T. (2008). Lead Contamination in Uruguay: The “La Teja” Neighborhood Case. In D. M. Whitacre (Ed.), Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (pp. 93–115). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 2). Three-Person IVF: Science Shows Ethical Questions Remain Unanswered. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion (No. GAO-12-308). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sowers, P. A. (2012). “Klanaheim”: Suburbia, civic identity, and the second Ku Klux Klan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2012, August 27). DC Comics Unveils New Power Couple. New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burrows 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Burrows 2014; Grimmer and Costello 2016).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grimmer and Costello 2016)
  • Three or more authors: (Diamond et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroinformatics
ISSN (print)1539-2791
ISSN (online)1559-0089
ScopeInformation Systems
General Neuroscience

Other styles