How to format your references using the Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, M. A. (2015). PLANETARY SCIENCE. The martian lake chronicles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacLean, R. C., & Gudelj, I. (2006). Resource competition and social conflict in experimental populations of yeast. Nature, 441(7092), 498–501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford, E. B., Lystad, V., & Rasio, F. A. (2005). Planet-planet scattering in the upsilon Andromedae system. Nature, 434(7035), 873–876.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wikelski, M., Tarlow, E. M., Raim, A., Diehl, R. H., Larkin, R. P., & Visser, G. H. (2003). Avian metabolism: Costs of migration in free-flying songbirds. Nature, 423(6941), 704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Battu, D. (2014). New Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fabbrocini, G., De Padova, M. P., & Tosti, A. (Eds.). (2016). Nonsurgical Lip and Eye Rejuvenation Techniques. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Esposito, F., & d’Amato, C. (2007). An Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm for Improving Symbolic Object Retrieval. In P. Brito, G. Cucumel, P. Bertrand, & F. de Carvalho (Eds.), Selected Contributions in Data Analysis and Classification (pp. 45–53). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 17). FDA Buries Evidence of Fraud. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Telecommunications: Application of the Antideficiency Act and Other Fiscal Controls to FCC’s E-Rate Program (No. GAO-05-546T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bonin, C. (2010). Spatial and temporal characteristics of electromagnetic activity in the brain prior to reaches to visual targets (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, August 31). Patchwork Mets Give Their Playoff Hopes a Boost. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chan 2015; MacLean and Gudelj 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacLean and Gudelj 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wikelski et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroinformatics
ISSN (print)1539-2791
ISSN (online)1559-0089
ScopeInformation Systems
General Neuroscience

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