How to format your references using the Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang, X. (2004). An embryonic nation. Nature, 428(6979), 210–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Devoret, M. H., & Schoelkopf, R. J. (2000). Amplifying quantum signals with the single-electron transistor. Nature, 406(6799), 1039–1046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baram, M., Chatain, D., & Kaplan, W. D. (2011). Nanometer-thick equilibrium films: the interface between thermodynamics and atomistics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6026), 206–209.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ludwig, M., Sabatier, N., Bull, P. M., Landgraf, R., Dayanithi, G., & Leng, G. (2002). Intracellular calcium stores regulate activity-dependent neuropeptide release from dendrites. Nature, 418(6893), 85–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, V., Julius, K., & Nikulin, M. S. (2011). Non-parametric Tests for Complete Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhang, L., Allanore, A., Wang, C., Yurko, J. A., & Crapps, J. (Eds.). (2016). Materials Processing Fundamentals. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Steele, A. (2008). Ontological Vulnerability Assessment. In S. Hartmann, X. Zhou, & M. Kirchberg (Eds.), Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2008 Workshops: WISE 2008 International Workshops, Auckland, New Zealand, September 1-4, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 24–35). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, February 10). Science Says Couples In Lasting Relationships Typically wait This Long To Start Having Sex. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). NASA: Challenges in Completing and Sustaining the International Space Station (No. GAO-07-1121T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maloney, J. L. (2015). Analyzing Students’ Personal Characteristics to Determine Study Outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, K. P. (2005, July 31). An Employee, Hired as a Man, Becomes a Woman. Now What? New York Times, p. 101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yang 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Devoret and Schoelkopf 2000; Yang 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Devoret and Schoelkopf 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Ludwig et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroinformatics
ISSN (print)1539-2791
ISSN (online)1559-0089
ScopeInformation Systems
General Neuroscience

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