How to format your references using the Neuroimaging Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America (NIC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith Caitlin. Drug target identification: a question of biology. Nature 2004;428(6979):225–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Convey Peter, Stevens Mark I. Ecology. Antarctic biodiversity. Science 2007;317(5846):1877–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi-Xiang Yu, Ye Jinwu, Liu Wu-Ming. Goldstone and Higgs modes of photons inside a cavity. Sci Rep 2013;3:3476.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weaver H. A., Stern S. A., Mutchler M. J., et al. Discovery of two new satellites of Pluto. Nature 2006;439(7079):943–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn Gerald J., Doganaksoy Necip. A Career in Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Singh Nirbhay N., editor. Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Aizpurua Javier, Hillenbrand Rainer. Localized Surface Plasmons: Basics and Applications in Field-Enhanced Spectroscopy. In: Enoch Stefan, Bonod Nicolas, editors. Plasmonics: From Basics to Advanced Topics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 151–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. Researchers Use Light To Recover ‘Lost’ Memories. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: Issues Associated With a Possible Amtrak Liquidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa Erik. Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow Linda. Young, Female, Energetic and, Now, Dean. New York Times 2008:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5149
ISSN (online)1557-9867
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles