How to format your references using the Neuroimaging Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America (NIC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ueda Kiyoshi. PHYSICS. To catch and smash charge on the hop. Science 2015;350(6262):740–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilman Sharon Larimer, Glaze Florence Eliza. History of science. “How science survived”--medieval manuscripts as fossils. Science 2005;307(5713):1208–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen Mingwei, McCauley James W., Hemker Kevin J. Shock-induced localized amorphization in boron carbide. Science 2003;299(5612):1563–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iyer V. R., Horak C. E., Scafe C. S., et al. Genomic binding sites of the yeast cell-cycle transcription factors SBF and MBF. Nature 2001;409(6819):533–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grotewold Erich, Chappell Joseph, Kellogg Elizabeth A. Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Furniss Tim, Shayler David J., Shayler Michael D., editors. Praxis Manned Spaceflight Log 1961–2006. New York, NY: Praxis; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu Yupeng, Xiang Rongjing, Zhang Min, et al. A PDD-Based Searching Approach for Expert Finding in Intranet Information Management. In: Ng Hwee Tou, Leong Mun-Kew, Kan Min-Yen, et al., editors. Information Retrieval Technology: Third Asia Information Retrieval Symposium, AIRS 2006, Singapore, October 16-18, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Andrew Elise. Researchers Find Four New Species Of Tooth-Frogs. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Recovery Act: Broadband Programs Are Ongoing, and Agencies’ Efforts Would Benefit from Improved Data Quality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chirwa Kabelo Ufulu. Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow Kelly. Patch of Sunlight May Be Elusive as School Expands. New York Times 2001:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5149
ISSN (online)1557-9867
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles