How to format your references using the Neuroimaging Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America (NIC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Normile D. Strange behavior at one dimension. Science 2000;290(5496):1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubin Jonathan D., Taatjes Dylan J. Molecular biology: Mediating transcription and RNA export. Nature 2015;526(7572):199–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith M. A., Brandt J., Shadmehr R. Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature 2000;403(6769):544–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Austin D. W., Allen M. S., McCollum J. M., et al. Gene network shaping of inherent noise spectra. Nature 2006;439(7076):608–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hauser Gerhard. Hygienegerechte Apparate Und Anlagen. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2008.
An edited book
Stanley William. Software Verification and Analysis: An Integrated, Hands-On Approach. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Maulucci Maria S. Rivera. Invoking the Sacred: Reflections on the Implications of EcoJustice for Science Education. In: Tippins Deborah J., Mueller Michael P., Eijck Michiel van, et al., editors. Cultural Studies and Environmentalism: The Confluence of EcoJustice, Place-based (Science) Education, and Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 43–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Luntz Stephen. Exploding Stars Prove Gravity Constant Over The Last 9 Billion Years. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Additional Costs to Government: Reflagging Kuwaiti Ships and Protecting Them in the Persian Gulf. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen Melissa Soriano. Emergency shelter for abused and neglected elders A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky Linda. “Caligula” Gives a Toga Party (But No One’s Really Invited). New York Times 2006:234.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5149
ISSN (online)1557-9867
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles