How to format your references using the Neuroimaging Clinics of North America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America (NIC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shell Karen M. Climate change. Constraining cloud feedbacks. Science 2012;338(6108):755–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garcia Vincent, Bibes Manuel. Electronics: inside story of ferroelectric memories. Nature 2012;483(7389):279–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grover Tarun, Sheng D. N., Vishwanath Ashvin. Emergent space-time supersymmetry at the boundary of a topological phase. Science 2014;344(6181):280–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ohtsuki Hisashi, Hauert Christoph, Lieberman Erez, et al. A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 2006;441(7092):502–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agachi Paul Şerban, Nagy Zoltán K., Cristea Mircea Vasile, et al. Model Based Control. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Bogdan Boris. Valuation in Life Sciences: A Practical Guide. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang Donghoon, Yung Moti, Sung Jaechul, et al. Preimage Attack on the Parallel FFT-Hashing Function. In: Pieprzyk Josef, Ghodosi Hossein, Dawson Ed, editors. Information Security and Privacy: 12th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2007, Townsville, Australia, July 2-4, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroimaging Clinics of North America.

Blog post
Davis Josh. One In Six Species At Risk From Climate Change. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. An Incident of Contamination of Livestock Feed and Certain Consumer Products. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho Chui Wa. Music genre on the move: Discourse and the cultural production of Japanese visual rock in Hong Kong. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow Kelly. Mayor Lifts Ban for Chinese New Year Fireworks Shows. New York Times 2003:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
AbbreviationNeuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
ISSN (print)1052-5149
ISSN (online)1557-9867
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles