How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson, John N. 2006. “Ecology. Mutualistic Webs of Species.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5772): 372–373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin, R. L., and B. R. Bloom. 2001. “Immunology. Chip Shots--Will Functional Genomics Get Functional?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5543): 799–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolyaninov, Igor I., Yu-Ju Hung, and Christopher C. Davis. 2007. “Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5819): 1699–1701.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Green, Todd J., Xin Zhang, Gail W. Wertz, and Ming Luo. 2006. “Structure of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Nucleoprotein-RNA Complex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5785): 357–360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bosq, Denis, and Delphine Blanke. 2007. Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions: Bosq/Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Halper, Jaroslava, ed. 2014. Progress in Heritable Soft Connective Tissue Diseases. Vol. 802. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Aschieri, Federico, and Margherita Zorzi. 2013. “Non-Determinism, Non-Termination and the Strong Normalization of System T.” In Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications: 11th International Conference, TLCA 2013, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, June 26-28, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Masahito Hasegawa, 31–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Bones of Gorilla-Sized Lemur Found in Underwater Graveyard.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. GAO’s Views on SDIO’s Phase I Cost Estimate. T-NSIAD-89-18. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Kimberly Lee. 2012. “Initial Construct Validation of the Color Figure Mazes Test.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman, Rick, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2013. “A City Borrows So Its Schools Open on Time.” New York Times, August 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson 2006; Modlin and Bloom 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Modlin and Bloom 2001)
  • Three authors: (Smolyaninov, Hung, and Davis 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Green et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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