How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Esposito, Larry. 2003. “Planetary Science. Cassini Imaging at Jupiter.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5612): 1529–1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Felsenfeld, Gary, and Mark Groudine. 2003. “Controlling the Double Helix.” Nature 421 (6921): 448–453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stefanová, Irena, Jeffrey R. Dorfman, and Ronald N. Germain. 2002. “Self-Recognition Promotes the Foreign Antigen Sensitivity of Naive T Lymphocytes.” Nature 420 (6914): 429–434.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nagashima, Hiroshi, Fumiaki Sugahara, Masaki Takechi, Rolf Ericsson, Yoshie Kawashima-Ohya, Yuichi Narita, and Shigeru Kuratani. 2009. “Evolution of the Turtle Body Plan by the Folding and Creation of New Muscle Connections.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5937): 193–196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, Philip. 2015. Essential Statistics for the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Malley-Morrison, Kathleen, Sherri McCarthy, and Denise Hines, eds. 2013. International Handbook of War, Torture, and Terrorism. Peace Psychology Book Series. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Obando, Sergio E., and Peter Avitabile. 2014. “Prediction of Forced Response on Ancillary Subsystem Components Attached to Reduced Linear Systems.” In Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014, edited by Matt Allen, Randy Mayes, and Daniel Rixen, 51–72. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Anti Vaxxers Lose New York Court Battle.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Training Programs: Information on Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990 Appropriations. HRD-89-71FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garrett, Dawn. 2013. “A Quantitative Study of STEM Goal and Role Alignment across Stakeholder Leaders in California: Advocacy for Application of a Systems Solution Approach.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2013. “When Hill Country Feels Too Much Like Shreveport.” New York Times, August 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Esposito 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Esposito 2003; Felsenfeld and Groudine 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Felsenfeld and Groudine 2003)
  • Three authors: (Stefanová, Dorfman, and Germain 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nagashima et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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