How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, John-Stephen. 2015. “Biomolecules. The Dark Side of Sunlight and Melanoma.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6224): 824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deban, Stephen M., and Wendy M. Olson. 2002. “Suction Feeding by a Tiny Predatory Tadpole.” Nature 420 (6911): 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine, David I., Michael W. Toffel, and Matthew S. Johnson. 2012. “Randomized Government Safety Inspections Reduce Worker Injuries with No Detectable Job Loss.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6083): 907–911.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Niikura, Hiromichi, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, Misha Yu Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum. 2002. “Sub-Laser-Cycle Electron Pulses for Probing Molecular Dynamics.” Nature 417 (6892): 917–922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smed, Jouni, and Harri Hakonen. 2017. Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nomura, Tatsuji, Takeshi Watanabe, and Sonoko Habu, eds. 2008. Humanized Mice. Vol. 324. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barker, Ken. 2012. “Combining Structured and Unstructured Knowledge Sources for Question Answering in Watson.” In Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 8th International Conference, DILS 2012, College Park, MD, USA, June 28-29, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Olivier Bodenreider and Bastien Rance, 53–55. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “The First ‘Space Nation’ Wants You To Live On Their Orbital Space Station.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Whole-Body Irradiation Program at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, and DOD’s Policy on the Use of Human Subjects for Medical Research. B-164031(2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine, Abir. 2013. “Perceptions of Executives from Seven Selected Companies of the Use of Social Media in Marketing Practices.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2016. “European Leaders Debate Proposals for Closer Military Ties.” New York Times, September 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Taylor 2015; Deban and Olson 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deban and Olson 2002)
  • Three authors: (Levine, Toffel, and Johnson 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Niikura et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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