How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sack, Fred D. 2004. “Plant Sciences. Yoda Would Be Proud: Valves for Land Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5676): 1461–1462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duncan, Richard P., and Peter A. Williams. 2002. “Ecology: Darwin’s Naturalization Hypothesis Challenged.” Nature 417 (6889): 608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, Zhen, Art B. Owen, and Russ B. Altman. 2004. “Genetics. Genomic Research and Human Subject Privacy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5681): 183.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Levy, Emmanuel D., Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Carol V. Robinson, and Sarah A. Teichmann. 2008. “Assembly Reflects Evolution of Protein Complexes.” Nature 453 (7199): 1262–1265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strome, Trevor L. 2013. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bello, Rafael, Rafael Falcón, Witold Pedrycz, and Janusz Kacprzyk, eds. 2008. Granular Computing: At the Junction of Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets. Vol. 224. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Strubbe, Stefan, and Rom Langerak. 2005. “A Composition Operator for Systems with Active and Passive Actions.” In Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems - FORTE 2005: 25th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, October 2-5, 2005. Proceedings, edited by Farn Wang, 24–37. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. “One Of The World’s Largest Icebergs Is About To Break From Antarctica.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Health Care: National Strategy Needed to Accelerate the Implementation of Information Technology. GAO-04-947T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obi, Chinwendu Nkechi. 2012. “Evaluation of Feeding Varying Levels of Digestible Lysine on Broiler Breeder Male Reproductive Characteristics and Body Weight Changes.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R. 2017. “Iraqi Forces Open a New Front Against ISIS in West Mosul.” New York Times, May 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sack 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sack 2004; Duncan and Williams 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Duncan and Williams 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lin, Owen, and Altman 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Levy et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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