How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Postle, K. 2002. “Close before Opening.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5560): 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Festing, M. F., and E. M. Fisher. 2000. “Mighty Mice.” Nature 404 (6780): 815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi, Neil, Sharani Roy, and John C. Tully. 2009. “Dynamical Steering and Electronic Excitation in NO Scattering from a Gold Surface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5954): 829–832.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Loll, Bernhard, Jan Kern, Wolfram Saenger, Athina Zouni, and Jacek Biesiadka. 2005. “Towards Complete Cofactor Arrangement in the 3.0 A Resolution Structure of Photosystem II.” Nature 438 (7070): 1040–1044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, James L. 1997. Probability and Statistics for Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reinkensmeyer, David J., and Volker Dietz, eds. 2016. Neurorehabilitation Technology. 2nd ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Logan, Caroline. 2016. “Risk Formulation: The New Frontier in Risk Assessment and Management.” In Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention, edited by D. Richard Laws and William O’Donohue, 83–105. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Hundreds of Erupting Methane Plumes Discovered Along U.S. East Coast.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Continuing Professional Education Study: Budget Analysts in the Federal Government, GS-560 Series. 156236. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kweider, Nour Mohamad. 2014. “Reading Comprehension among Arabic Heritage Language Learners and the Simple View of Reading Model.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, Michael. 2017. “A Gadget Is Favored by Fingers Both Restless and Sticky.” New York Times, May 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Postle 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Postle 2002; Festing and Fisher 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Festing and Fisher 2000)
  • Three authors: (Shenvi, Roy, and Tully 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Loll et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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