How to format your references using the Global Discourse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Discourse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sack, Fred D. 2004. “Plant Sciences. Yoda Would Be Proud: Valves for Land Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5676): 1461–1462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, Russell D., and Quentin D. Atkinson. 2003. “Language-Tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin.” Nature 426 (6965): 435–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, Minsoo, Christopher V. Carman, and Timothy A. Springer. 2003. “Bidirectional Transmembrane Signaling by Cytoplasmic Domain Separation in Integrins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5640): 1720–1725.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shearer, A., B. Stappers, P. O’Connor, A. Golden, R. Strom, M. Redfern, and O. Ryan. 2003. “Enhanced Optical Emission during Crab Giant Radio Pulses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5632): 493–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavé, Alain. 2012. Modeling Living Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Steinhoff, Gustav, ed. 2016. Regenerative Medicine - from Protocol to Patient: 5. Regenerative Therapies II. 3rd ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Goldbeck-Wood, Sandra. 2007. “Psychoanalysis for Emergencies: A Toolkit for Trainees.” In Psychological Challenges in Obstetrics and Gynecology: The Clinical Management, edited by Jayne Cockburn and Michael E. Pawson, 33–42. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Discourse.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “What Could We Do If There Was An Asteroid On A Collision Course With Earth?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Must Be Taken Now to Address Slow Pace of Federal Progress. T-AIMD-98-205. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, Joseph Walter. 2006. “The Relation Between Expressed Emotion and Adolescent Psychopathology.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L., and James C. McKINLEY Jr. 2015. “City Agency Shuts Down Group Home Where 3 Teenage Rape Suspects Lived.” New York Times, June 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sack 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sack 2004; Gray and Atkinson 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray and Atkinson 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Carman, and Springer 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shearer et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Discourse
ISSN (print)2326-9995
ISSN (online)2043-7897
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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