How to format your references using the Neuroepidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroepidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J. Nanotechnology: what is there to fear from something so small? Nature. 2003 Dec;426(6968):750.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ernst MO, Banks MS. Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature. 2002 Jan;415(6870):429–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith TM, Karl TR, Reynolds RW. Climate modeling. How accurate are climate simulations? Science. 2002 Apr;296(5567):483–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen YC, Wong CL, Muzzi F, Vlaardingerbroek I, Kidd BN, Schenk PM. Root defense analysis against Fusarium oxysporum reveals new regulators to confer resistance. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul;4:5584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mullaney MD. The Complete Guide to Option Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Haslam J, Laycock J, editors. Therapeutic Management of Incontinence and Pelvic Pain: Pelvic Organ Disorders. 2nd Edition. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Fasano G. Resource-Constrained Scheduling with Non-constant Capacity and Non-regular Activities. In: Fasano G, Pintér JD, editors. Space Engineering: Modeling and Optimization with Case Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 103–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroepidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Free-flowing water discovered on the equator of Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. 2013 Dec [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Transportation: Multiple Factors Influence Extent of Transit-Oriented Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz W. Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. Why Women Aren’t C.E.O.s. New York Times. 2017 Jul;SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroepidemiology
ISSN (print)0251-5350
ISSN (online)1423-0208
Clinical Neurology

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