How to format your references using the Neuroepidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuroepidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Machens CK: Neuroscience. Building the human brain. Science 2012;338:1156–1157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Entcheva E, Williams JC: Channelrhodopsin2 current during the action potential: “optical AP clamp” and approximation. Sci Rep 2014;4:5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norouzzadeh P, Myles CW, Vashaee D: Prediction of giant thermoelectric power factor in type-VIII clathrate Si46. Sci Rep 2014;4:7028.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baerenfaller K, Grossmann J, Grobei MA, Hull R, Hirsch-Hoffmann M, Yalovsky S, et al.: Genome-scale proteomics reveals Arabidopsis thaliana gene models and proteome dynamics. Science 2008;320:938–941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Islam JS, Zatzman GM, Mughal MAH, Rahman MS: The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
An edited book
Nõges T, Eckmann R, Kangur K, Nõges P, Reinart A, Roll G, et al. (eds): European Large Lakes Ecosystem changes and their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Simoff MJ: Quality Control Mechanism for Endoscopic Procedures; in Ernst A, Herth FJF (eds): Principles and Practice of Interventional Pulmonology. New York, NY, Springer, 2013, pp 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuroepidemiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Hubble Snaps Awesome Image Of Jupiter As It Makes Its Closest Approach To Earth. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Small Business Innovation Research: Change in Program Eligibility Has Had Little Impact. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subramanian K: Mechanisms and Effect of Microstructure on High Temperature Deformation of Gamma-TiAl Based Alloys 2003;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M, Schwirtz M, Robbins T: New York State Taking on Union of Prison Guards. New York Times 2016;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroepidemiology
ISSN (print)0251-5350
ISSN (online)1423-0208
Clinical Neurology

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