How to format your references using the Neurodegenerative Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurodegenerative Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snyder SH: Obituary: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004). Nature 2005;433:593.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sacco T, Sacchetti B: Role of secondary sensory cortices in emotional memory storage and retrieval in rats. Science 2010;329:649–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris GC, Wimmer M, Aston-Jones G: A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking. Nature 2005;437:556–559.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dinse HR, Ragert P, Pleger B, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff M: Pharmacological modulation of perceptual learning and associated cortical reorganization. Science 2003;301:91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazemi GA, Lehr JH, Perrochet P: Groundwater Age. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
McBurney P, Rahwan I, Parsons S (eds): Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Workshop, ArgMAS 2010 Toronto, ON, Canada, May 10, 2010 Revised, Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Knipping C, Reid D, Straehler-Pohl H: Establishing Mathematics Classroom Culture: Concealing and Revealing the Rules of the Game; in Gellert U, Giménez Rodríguez J, Hahn C, Kafoussi S (eds): Educational Paths to Mathematics: A C.I.E.A.E.M. Sourcebook. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 67–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E: Ants Prove Useful in Detecting Land Containing Gold. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaisson C: An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K: Running in Place. New York Times 2002;141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurodegenerative Diseases
AbbreviationNeurodegener. Dis.
ISSN (print)1660-2854
ISSN (online)1660-2862
ScopeClinical Neurology

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