How to format your references using the Information and Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information and Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I.P.F. Owens, Ecology and evolution. Sex differences in mortality rate, Science. 297 (2002) 2008–2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.I. Cirac, P. Zoller, A scalable quantum computer with ions in an array of microtraps, Nature. 404 (2000) 579–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Carrez, D. Ferré, P. Cordier, Implications for plastic flow in the deep mantle from modelling dislocations in MgSiO3 minerals, Nature. 446 (2007) 68–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Li, L. Kuai, L. Chen, B. Geng, “Re-growth etching” to large-sized porous gold nanostructures, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.H. Beecken, C.A. Beecken, Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
V.B. Melas, S. Mignani, P. Monari, L. Salmaso, eds., Topics in Statistical Simulation: Research Papers from the 7th International Workshop on Statistical Simulation, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Zhou, B. Wen, Portable High Frequency Surface Wave Radar OSMAR-S, in: H. Leung, S. Chandra Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Intelligent Environmental Sensing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 79–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information and Computation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Thunder God Vine Extract Makes Obese Mice Rapidly Shed The Pounds, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Transportation: Experts Identified Areas for Operational Improvements without Implementing Organizational Changes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Stanford, Finding theatre from within: Augusto Boal’s Games for Non-Actors in an Introduction to Acting class, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J. de la MERCED, E. Steel, As Content Makers Rise, Malone Eyes Consolidation, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation and Computation
AbbreviationInf. Comput.
ISSN (print)0890-5401
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems
Theoretical Computer Science

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