How to format your references using the American Journal of Sonography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Sonography (AJS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson ST. History of science. Alexander von Humboldt and the general physics of the Earth. Science 2009;324:596–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horner-Devine MC, Martiny AC. Biogeochemistry. News about nitrogen. Science 2008;320:757–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martinez-Mateo J, Elkouss D, Martin V. Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution. Sci Rep 2013;3:1576.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hsu H-J, Liang M-R, Chen C-T, Chung B-C. Pregnenolone stabilizes microtubules and promotes zebrafish embryonic cell movement. Nature 2006;439:480–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rapaport H. The Literary Theory Toolkit. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Gleich A von, Ayres RU, Gößling-Reisemann S, editors. Sustainable Metals Management: Securing our Future - Steps Towards a Closed Loop Economy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Burger P, Bouquet A, Striem MJ. Grape Breeding. In: Jain SM, Priyadarshan PM, eds. Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Tropical Species. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 161–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Sonography.

Blog post
Davis J. Female Capuchin Picks her Nose – Using a Stick. IFLScience 2015. (October 30, 2018). Retrieved from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services Licensees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green SW. The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Yuri Drozdov, 91, Top Spy For K.G.B. Who Planted Agents Around the Globe. New York Times. July 11, 2017:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Sonography
ISSN (print)2572-4711
ISSN (online)2572-472X

Other styles