How to format your references using the American Journal of Sonography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Sonography (AJS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Thornton G. Materials science. Watching nanoparticles grow. Science 2003;300:1378–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kai L, Kaldenhoff R. A refined model of water and CO₂ membrane diffusion: effects and contribution of sterols and proteins. Sci Rep 2014;4:6665.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wang C, Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science 2001;291:2390–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Gao M, Labuda T, Xia Y, et al. Jun turnover is controlled through JNK-dependent phosphorylation of the E3 ligase Itch. Science 2004;306:271–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Denison E, Ren GY. Luke Him Sau Architect. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Gaggioli A. Networked Flow: Towards an Understanding of Creative Networks., (Riva G, Milani L, Mazzoni E, eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gerard L, Liu OL, Corliss S, Varma K, Spitulnik M, Linn MC. Professional Development Programs for Teaching with Visualizations. In: Mouza C, Lavigne N, eds. Emerging Technologies for the Classroom: A Learning Sciences Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Sonography.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Infographic Shows The Differences Between The Diseases We Donate To, And The Diseases That Kill Us. IFLScience 2014. (October 30, 2018). Retrieved from https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/infographic-shows-differences-between-diseases-we-donate-and-diseases-kill-us/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Comments From The Copyright Office On GAO-10-428R (GAO-10-707SP), an E-supplement to GAO-10-428R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lu W-Y. The performance practice of Buddhist baiqi in contemporary Taiwan. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Ruiz RR, Rothenberg B. Exceptions for Drugs Fall Under Scrutiny. New York Times. September 15, 2016:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Sonography
ISSN (print)2572-4711
ISSN (online)2572-472X
Scope

Other styles