How to format your references using the American Journal of Sonography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Sonography (AJS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Goodman S. Battle to save beleaguered beluga. Nature 2001;412:108.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fialko Y, Pearse J. Sombrero uplift above the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body: evidence of a ballooning mid-crustal diapir. Science 2012;338:250–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Prieto MA, Brunetti G, Mack K-H. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT. Science 2002;298:193–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Watabe M, Juman G, Miyamoto K, Omatsu T. Light induced conch-shaped relief in an azo-polymer film. Sci Rep 2014;4:4281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bliesner DM. Establishing a CGMP Laboratory Audit System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Wang J, Kosaka M, Xing K, editors. Manufacturing Servitization in the Asia-Pacific. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Grankov AG, Milshin AA. Influence of Vertical Heat Transfer on the Relationships Between the SOA MCW and IR Radiation Intensity and Surface Heat Fluxes: Modeling. In: Milshin AA, ed. Microwave Radiation of the Ocean-Atmosphere: Boundary Heat and Dynamic Interaction. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 63–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Sonography.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. FDA-Approved Treatment Could Be Effective Against Drug-Resistant Brain Tumors In Children. IFLScience 2015. (October 30, 2018). Retrieved from https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/fda-approved-treatment-could-be-effective-against-drug-resistant-brain-tumors/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Elementary and Secondary Education: Ed-Flex States Vary in Implementation of Waiver Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Shaker M. Design of Front End Circuits for a Low Power Ultra Wide Band Receiver. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Corkery M, Cowley S. For Better or Worse, Debt Reaches New Peak. New York Times. May 17, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Sonography
ISSN (print)2572-4711
ISSN (online)2572-472X
Scope

Other styles