How to format your references using the Neuro-Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuro-Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ekeland I. Equilibrium: in the balance. Nature. 2002;417(6887):385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schindler DE, Hilborn R. Sustainability. Prediction, precaution, and policy under global change. Science. 2015;347(6225):953-954.
A journal article with 3 authors
Solomon BR, Hyder MN, Varanasi KK. Separating oil-water nanoemulsions using flux-enhanced hierarchical membranes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5504.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, et al. Climate change. Stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science. 2008;319(5863):573-574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz RA, Carew MG, Maksimenko T. Micro Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Choraś RS, ed. Image Processing and Communications Challenges 4. Vol 184. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Oderda M, Gontero P. Swollen and/or Painful Scrotum. In: Gontero P, Kirby RS, Carson CC III, eds. Problem Based Urology. Springer; 2013:29-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuro-Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J. Commonly Used Pesticide Is Acting As An Inadvertent Contraceptive For Bees. IFLScience. Published July 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Fees: Review of Air Carriers’ Year 2000 Passenger and Property Screening Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo D. Parents’ perspectives of undocumented students’ transition from high school. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss B. Athletes Stand to Gain in a Settlement With the N.C.A.A. New York Times. February 4, 2017:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuro-Oncology
AbbreviationNeuro. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1522-8517
ISSN (online)1523-5866
ScopeCancer Research
Clinical Neurology

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