How to format your references using the Netherlands Heart Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Netherlands Heart Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Frische S. It is time for full disclosure of author contributions. Nature. 2012;489:475.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Doyle J, Csete M. Rules of engagement. Nature. 2007;446:860.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nguyen TD, Ehrenfreund E, Vardeny ZV. Spin-polarized light-emitting diode based on an organic bipolar spin valve. Science. 2012;337:204–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Cao G, Feng H, Guo F, Wu K, Li X, Liang G, et al. Quantitative analysis of fitness costs associated with the development of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5629.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nemethy L. Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Napier S, editor. Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos: A Critical Analysis of Pro-Choice Arguments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Olyveira GM, Iost RM, Luz RAS, Crespilho FN. Biofuel Cells: Bioelectrochemistry Applied to the Generation of Green Electricity. In: de Souza FL, Leite ER, editors. Nanoenergy: Nanotechnology Applied for Energy Production. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 101–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Netherlands Heart Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Astronomers Have Spotted Something Very, Very Strange Surrounding A Distant Star [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financial Markets: Preliminary Observations on the October 1987 Crash. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jan. Report No.: GGD-88-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carpenter KJ. The Relationship between School Leadership Practices And School Climate [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Where Are the Yankees I Loved to Hate? New York Times. 2013 Mar 12;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNetherlands Heart Journal
AbbreviationNeth. Heart J.
ISSN (print)1568-5888
ISSN (online)1876-6250
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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