How to format your references using the Cancer Treatment Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Treatment Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Niiler E. Good neighbours. Nature 2003;426:690–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bird JP, Ochiai Y. Physics. Electron spin polarization in nanoscale constrictions. Science 2004;303:1621–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouxel OJ, Bekker A, Edwards KJ. Iron isotope constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic ocean redox state. Science 2005;307:1088–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Környei Z, Beke S, Mihálffy T, Jelitai M, Kovács KJ, Szabó Z, et al. Cell sorting in a Petri dish controlled by computer vision. Sci Rep 2013;3:1088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mihajlovic-Madzarevic V. Clinical Trials Audit Preparation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Löwe B, Normann D, Soskov I, Soskova A, editors. Models of Computation in Context: 7th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2011, Sofia, Bulgaria, June 27 - July 2, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6735. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
McGettigan T, Smith E. The Farce of Race. In: Smith E, editor. A Formula for Eradicating Racism: Debunking White Supremacy, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016, p. 19–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Treatment Reviews.

Blog post
Hale T. Watch A Guy Deliberately Get Stung By The “Cow Killer” Ant In The Name Of Science. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Customs Automated Commercial Environment Program Progressing, but Need for Management Improvements Continues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allison CL. An Investigation into the Experiences of Traditional Higher Education Instructors Transitioning into Effective Online Instructors. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Suspicion Is One Nemesis Armstrong Can’t Outpedal. New York Times 2010:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Treatment Reviews
AbbreviationCancer Treat. Rev.
ISSN (print)0305-7372
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles