How to format your references using the Nephron Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag H: Ontario. Nature 2005;434:676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nijhout HF, Grunert LW: The cellular and physiological mechanism of wing-body scaling in Manduca sexta. Science 2010;330:1693–1695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraschiv-Ionescu A, Buchser E, Aminian K: Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions. Sci Rep 2013;3:2019.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fedotov IV, Doronina-Amitonova LV, Voronin AA, Levchenko AO, Zibrov SA, Sidorov-Biryukov DA, et al.: Electron spin manipulation and readout through an optical fiber. Sci Rep 2014;4:5362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gavin H, Porter T: Female Aggression. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Halwachs-Baumann G (ed): Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapy. Vienna, Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang M, Yin H: Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-Specific Patches for Preventing Component Hijacking Attacks; in Yin H (ed): Android Application Security: A Semantics and Context-Aware Approach. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S: Space Travel Makes Cherry Trees Bloom Years Early. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Agencies Need to Establish and Implement Incremental Development Policies. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haile MD: A mental health community outreach and education program for Eritrean immigrants: A grant proposal 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G: Hills to Discovery Grow Steeper. New York Times 2014;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron Physiology
AbbreviationNephron Physiol.
ISSN (online)1660-2137
General Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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