How to format your references using the Nephron Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nephron Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Read P: Planetary science: plumbing the depths of Uranus and Neptune. Nature 2013;497:323–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yagi M, Oikawa S: Ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism in a flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Sci Rep 2014;4:7135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui P, Tang M, Wu Z-X: Message spreading in networks with stickiness and persistence: large clustering does not always facilitate large-scale diffusion. Sci Rep 2014;4:6303.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Miled N, Yan Y, Hon W-C, Perisic O, Zvelebil M, Inbar Y, et al.: Mechanism of two classes of cancer mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit. Science 2007;317:239–242.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain BJ, Wild BJ, Stephens AD, Phelan LA: Variant Haemoglobins. Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
An edited book
Murphy N, Ellis GFR, O’Connor T (eds): Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Li Z, Yu D, Xiong W, Wang D, Tu M: Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation; in Hawksworth DL, Bull AT (eds): Marine, Freshwater, and Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2006, pp 49–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nephron Clinical Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Climate Change On Saturn’s Moon Titan Hinted By Images Of Wind-Eroded Features. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Traffic Control: Good Progress on Interim Replacement for Outage-Plagued System, but Risks Can Be Further Reduced. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dotson KT: Smoke points of microgravity and normal gravity coflow diffusion flames 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S: Art and Its Inspiration, Side by Side. New York Times 2015;CT8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNephron Clinical Practice
AbbreviationNephron Clin. Pract.
ISSN (online)1660-2110
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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