How to format your references using the NDT and E International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NDT and E International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zahn R. Climate change: Beyond the CO(2) connection. Nature 2009;460:335–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Podsiadlowski P, Justham S. Astronomy. Big bang points to stellar mix-up. Science 2006;314:1551–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith SJ, Wigley TM, Edmonds J. CLIMATE: A New Route Toward Limiting Climate Change? Science 2000;290:1109–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deblock R, Onac E, Gurevich L, Kouwenhoven LP. Detection of quantum noise from an electrically driven two-level system. Science 2003;301:203–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayor RH. Fiorello La Guardia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Decker BD, Dittmann J, Kraetzer C, Vielhauer C, editors. Communications and Multimedia Security: 14th IFIP TC 6/TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2013, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-26, 2013. Proceedings. vol. 8099. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Williams K, March L, Wassell SR. Leon Battista Alberti, De lunularum quadratura. In: Williams K, March L, Wassell SR, editors. The Mathematical Works of Leon Battista Alberti, Basel: Springer; 2010, p. 201–12.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NDT and E International.

Blog post
Luntz S. Eyes Are A Lot More Expensive Than We Thought. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Public Transportation: Federal Role in Value Capture Strategies for Transit Is Limited, but Additional Guidance Could Help Clarify Policies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung M. An integrated change model in project management. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Muguruza Cruises Through a Duel of Roland Garros Champions. New York Times 2017:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNDT and E International
AbbreviationNDT E Int.
ISSN (print)0963-8695
ScopeMechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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