How to format your references using the NDT and E International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NDT and E International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sita LR. Chemistry. Tin takes ethylene on--and off. Science 2009;325:1631–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Costello EK, Relman DA. Population health: immaturity in the gut microbial community. Nature 2014;510:344–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han Y, Bai T, Liu W. Controlled heterogeneous stem cell differentiation on a shape memory hydrogel surface. Sci Rep 2014;4:5815.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dixit R, Ross JL, Goldman YE, Holzbaur ELF. Differential regulation of dynein and kinesin motor proteins by tau. Science 2008;319:1086–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Franssen J-M, Vila Real P. Fire Design of Steel Structures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
Miller Onzm B A  B Sc , Dennison J P  M Sc , editors. An Outline of Psychiatry in Clinical Lectures: The Lectures of Carl Wernicke. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Okorogbona AOM, Managa LR, Adebola PO, Ngobeni HM, Khosa TB. Salinity and Crop Productivity. In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 89–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NDT and E International.

Blog post
Fang J. Humans Can Detect One Trillion Odours. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: To Enhance Education’s Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-Level Data Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steers AV. Releasing from the inside out: The development of the role of Helene in “Festen.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. The Dreaded Call. A Hole in the Art. Now It’s Settled. New York Times 2002:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNDT and E International
AbbreviationNDT E Int.
ISSN (print)0963-8695
ScopeMechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles