How to format your references using the NDT and E International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NDT and E International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vanmaekelbergh D. Materials science: Superlattice substitution. Nature 2015;524:418–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Winckler G, Fischer H. 30,000 years of cosmic dust in Antarctic ice. Science 2006;313:491.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amari T, Luciani J-F, Aly J-J. Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere. Nature 2015;522:188–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee HN, Hesse D, Zakharov N, Gösele U. Ferroelectric Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films of uniform a-axis orientation on silicon substrates. Science 2002;296:2006–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL. Trading on Sentiment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
de Almeida AMP, Leal NC, editors. Advances in Yersinia Research. vol. 954. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bainbridge WS. Science, Technology, and Reality in The Matrix Online and Tabula Rasa. In: Bainbridge WS, editor. Online Worlds: Convergence of the Real and the Virtual, London: Springer; 2010, p. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NDT and E International.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Does the IPCC Know Climate Change is Happening? IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Monte Canfield, Jr., 1974-1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long RE. Performance Assessment of Predicted Heat Strain in High Heat Stress Exposures. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Decline to Take Up New Eminent Domain Case. New York Times 2007:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNDT and E International
AbbreviationNDT E Int.
ISSN (print)0963-8695
ScopeMechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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