How to format your references using the Navigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Navigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Trono, “Virology. Picking the right spot,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5626, pp. 1670–1671, Jun. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. J. L. Rowley and R. A. Alford, “Hot bodies protect amphibians against chytrid infection in nature,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1515, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. C. Denommee, S. J. Bentley, and A. W. Droxler, “Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3876, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Hosten, M. T. Rakher, J. T. Barreiro, N. A. Peters, and P. G. Kwiat, “Counterfactual quantum computation through quantum interrogation,” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7079, pp. 949–952, Feb. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. V. Vaseghi, Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2001.
An edited book
S. Kassel and B. Wu, Eds., Software Engineering Education Going Agile: 11th China–Europe International Symposium on Software Engineering Education (CEISEE 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Huang, L. Alem, and F. Tecchia, “HandsIn3D: Supporting Remote Guidance with Immersive Virtual Environments,” in Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, P. Kotzé, G. Marsden, G. Lindgaard, J. Wesson, and M. Winckler, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 70–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Navigation.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Neanderthals Completely Disappeared Just 3,000 Years After Their Population Peaked,” IFLScience, 22-Jul-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Bridge Safety: Structural Soundness of the Zilwaukee Bridge,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-88-96, Mar. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Dillon, “Active aging program for older adults with early stage dementia,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Corkery, “Big Banks Pass the Fed’s Stress Tests, Setting Up Large Dividend Payments,” New York Times, p. B3, 28-Jun-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNavigation
AbbreviationNavigation (Wash.)
ISSN (print)0028-1522
ISSN (online)2161-4296
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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