How to format your references using the Navigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Navigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Tishkoff, “GENETICS. Strength in small numbers,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6254, pp. 1282–1283, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Goodall and L. Pintea, “Securing a future for chimpanzees,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7303, pp. 180–181, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. J. McPhaden, S. E. Zebiak, and M. H. Glantz, “ENSO as an integrating concept in earth science,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5806, pp. 1740–1745, Dec. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Aryan, M. A. E. Anderson, K. M. Myles, and Z. N. Adelman, “Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1603, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Foote, J. Hillier, K. Mitchell-Wallace, and M. Jones, Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
R. Kirsch, Ed., Groundwater Geophysics: A Tool for Hydrogeology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Richard, J.-M. Robert, S. Malo, and J. Migneault, “Giving UI Developers the Power of UI Design Patterns,” in Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting with Information: Symposium on Human Interface 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, M. J. Smith and G. Salvendy, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 40–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Navigation.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Bright Spots On Ceres Much Younger Than Previously Thought,” IFLScience, 06-Mar-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Tax Systems Modernization: Imaging System’s Performance Improving but Still Falls Short of Expectations,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GGD-97-29, Jan. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Ficchi, “A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play?,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. F. Burghardt, “An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move,” New York Times, p. 14NJ6, 20-Aug-2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNavigation
AbbreviationNavigation (Wash.)
ISSN (print)0028-1522
ISSN (online)2161-4296
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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