How to format your references using the Nature Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bornholdt, S. Systems biology. Less is more in modeling large genetic networks. Science 310, 449–451 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Semmelhack, J. L. & Wang, J. W. Select Drosophila glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion. Nature 459, 218–223 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mendell, J. T., ap Rhys, C. M. J. & Dietz, H. C. Separable roles for rent1/hUpf1 in altered splicing and decay of nonsense transcripts. Science 298, 419–422 (2002).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1.
Sanchez-Elsner, T., Gou, D., Kremmer, E. & Sauer, F. Noncoding RNAs of trithorax response elements recruit Drosophila Ash1 to Ultrabithorax. Science 311, 1118–1123 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Davino, C., Furno, M. & Vistocco, D. Quantile Regression: Theory and Applications. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014).
An edited book
1.
Lun, Y. H. V. Green Shipping Management. (Springer International Publishing, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ruan, L. & Zeng, G. SARS Epidemic: SARS Outbreaks in Inner-land of China. in Emerging Infections in Asia (eds. Lu, Y., Essex, M. & Roberts, B.) 75–96 (Springer US, 2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Photonics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E. Chemists show how life on Earth may have started. IFLScience (2013).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Uncertainties Surrounding IRS’ Fiscal Year 1992 Budget Request for Tax System Modernization. (1991).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Starkenberg, L. I. Health science student’s knowledge of oral health and preventive practices. (California State University, Long Beach, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Glanz, J. & Armendariz, A. Years of Questions, but Researcher Gets a Pass. New York Times A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Photonics
AbbreviationNat. Photonics
ISSN (print)1749-4885
ISSN (online)1749-4893
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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