How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.-J. Luo, “Climate science: ocean dynamics not required?,” Nature, vol. 477, no. 7366, pp. 544–546, Sep. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Bhandoola and D. Artis, “Immunology. Rebuilding the thymus,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6077, pp. 40–41, Apr. 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. R. Ravishankara, J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann, “Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5949, pp. 123–125, Oct. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Mack et al., “Conditional restoration of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in Glur-A-deficient mice,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5526, pp. 2501–2504, Jun. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lee Abbott and J. McKinney, Understanding and Applying Research Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
J. Portugali, Ed., Complex Artificial Environments: Simulation, Cognition and VR in the Study and Planning of Cities. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
D. J. Kim and D. Zhang, “The Effects of Sense of Presence, Sense of Belonging, and Cognitive Absorption on Satisfaction and User Loyalty toward an Immersive 3D Virtual World,” in Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business: 8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, R. Sharman, H. R. Rao, and T. S. Raghu, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 30–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Just For You: How To Create Sounds That Only You Can Hear In A Venue,” IFLScience, Aug. 12, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Actions Needed To Improve the Federal Communications Commission’s Financial Disclosure System,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, FPCD-76-51, Dec. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Machula, “Understanding and Predicting Teachers’ Knowledge of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, “Revealing What You May Not Care to Tell,” New York Times, p. C5, May 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Prof. Commun.
ISSN (print)0361-1434
ScopeIndustrial relations
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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