How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Dalton, “Older women scientists fight USGS over layoffs. US Geological Survey,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6775, p. 219, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. L. Strausberg and S. L. Schreiber, “From knowing to controlling: a path from genomics to drugs using small molecule probes,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5617, pp. 294–295, Apr. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Reik, W. Dean, and J. Walter, “Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5532, pp. 1089–1093, Aug. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Potočnik et al., “Size and symmetry of the superconducting gap in the f.c.c. Cs3C60 polymorph close to the metal-Mott insulator boundary,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4265, Mar. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. J. Chapman, Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2012.
An edited book
C. Casadio, B. Coecke, M. Moortgat, and P. Scott, Eds., Categories and Types in Logic, Language, and Physics: Essays Dedicated to Jim Lambek on the Occasion of His 90th Birthday, vol. 8222. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8222. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. P. Migon, “Connection of Microcosm with Macrocosm in Max Scheler’s Philosophy: Man, Logos and Ethos,” in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm, A.-T. Tymieniecka, Ed., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006, pp. 67–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “How Do Astronauts Sleep In Space?,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Status and Issues Relating to the Space Transportation System,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, PSAD-76-73, Apr. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Peng, “Teaching and Coaching Brazilian Jiujitsu: An Instructional Manual,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. by T. Hayes, “The Way It Is,” New York Times, p. MM15, Aug. 11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Prof. Commun.
ISSN (print)0361-1434
ScopeIndustrial relations
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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