How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, “Evolution: The first supper,” Nature, vol. 468, no. 7327, pp. S8-9, Dec. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Woolhouse and A. Donaldson, “Managing foot-and-mouth,” Nature, vol. 410, no. 6828, pp. 515–516, Mar. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. C. Sherwood, J. R. Lanzante, and C. L. Meyer, “Radiosonde daytime biases and late-20th century warming,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5740, pp. 1556–1559, Sep. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. A. Sutton, N. R. Wall, G. N. Aakalu, and E. M. Schuman, “Regulation of dendritic protein synthesis by miniature synaptic events,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5679, pp. 1979–1983, Jun. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Katsilambros et al., Diabetes in Clinical Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
A. I. Awad and M. Hassaballah, Eds., Image Feature Detectors and Descriptors: Foundations and Applications, 1st ed. 2016., vol. 630. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
V. I. Arnold, V. V. Kozlov, and A. I. Neishtadt, “Integrable Systems and Integration Methods,” in Mathematical Aspects of Classical and Celestial Mechanics: Third Edition, V. V. Kozlov and A. I. Neishtadt, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 171–206.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Petrified Tree Shows Scars From Prehistoric Wildfires,” IFLScience, 13-Aug-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Services: Automation and Consolidation of Flight Service Stations,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-88-77, Feb. 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. P. Wells, “A case study of educators’ perceptions of the effects of high -stakes testing and accountability policies on high- and low-poverty middle schools in a Maryland school district,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. Austen and M. M. Chapman, “A Slow Thaw for the Great Lakes,” New York Times, p. B1, 24-Mar-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Prof. Commun.
ISSN (print)0361-1434
ScopeIndustrial relations
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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