How to format your references using the Nature Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Rahilly, S. Human genetics illuminates the paths to metabolic disease. Nature 462, 307–314 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehta, M. P. & Baross, J. A. Nitrogen fixation at 92 degrees C by a hydrothermal vent archaeon. Science 314, 1783–1786 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
Millonig, J. H., Millen, K. J. & Hatten, M. E. The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature 403, 764–769 (2000).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Erez, N., Gordon, G., Nest, M. & Kurizki, G. Thermodynamic control by frequent quantum measurements. Nature 452, 724–727 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rachev, S. T., Kim, Y. S., Bianchi, M. L. & Fabozzi, F. J. Financial Models with Lévy Processes and Volatility Clustering. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
Gault, D. Beginning Oracle Application Express 4. (Apress, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, E. J., Rajendran, M. & Ellington, A. D. Aptamers as Emerging Probes for Macromolecular Sensing. in Advanced Concepts in Fluorescence Sensing: Part B: Macromolecular Sensing (eds. Geddes, C. D. & Lakowicz, J. R.) 127–155 (Springer US, 2005).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Living With Complexity: Evolution, Ecology, Viruses And Climate Change. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. State Department: Progress and Challenges in Addressing Management Issues. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Donohue, J. Resolving Past Liabilities for Future Reduction in Greenhouse Gases; Nuclear Energy and the Outstanding Federal Liability of Spent Nuclear Fuel. (George Washington University, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Antitrust Policy Ambiguity To Be on Justices’ Docket. New York Times C3 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Immunology
AbbreviationNat. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1529-2908
ISSN (online)1529-2916

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