How to format your references using the Nature Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varmus, H. The new era in cancer research. Science 312, 1162–1165 (2006).
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme, P. & Liljeros, F. Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 4999 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kersten, S., Desvergne, B. & Wahli, W. Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 405, 421–424 (2000).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Li, L. et al. Atomic configurations at InAs partial dislocation cores associated with Z-shape faulted dipoles. Sci. Rep. 3, 3229 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Groves, E. The Constant Contact Guide to Email Marketing. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009).
An edited book
Local Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Benefits and Risks. (Springer International Publishing, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Kryazhev, Y. G., Solodovnichenko, V. S., Drozdov, V. A. & Likholobov, V. A. Carbon Adsorbents with Adjustable Porous Structure Formed in the Chemical Dehydro-Halogenation of Halogenated Polymers. in Biodefence: Advanced Materials and Methods for Health Protection (eds. Mikhalovsky, S. & Khajibaev, A.) 33–40 (Springer Netherlands, 2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Immunology.

Blog post
Davis, J. The Weirdest Sex Laws From Around The World. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: Education Could Do More to Assist Charter Schools with Applying for Discretionary Grants. (2010).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stefanek, A. Quantitative Purchasing Structure for Ferrous Scrap. (George Washington University, 2019).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., Davey, M. & Blinder, A. Random Shots on a Deadly Night for Kalamazoo. New York Times A1 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Immunology
AbbreviationNat. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1529-2908
ISSN (online)1529-2916

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