How to format your references using the Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisher C B 2006 Public health. Clinical trials results databases: unanswered questions Science 311 180–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuda A and Osuka A 2001 Fully conjugated porphyrin tapes with electronic absorption bands that reach into infrared Science 293 79–82
A journal article with 3 authors
Indjeian V B, Stern B M and Murray A W 2005 The centromeric protein Sgo1 is required to sense lack of tension on mitotic chromosomes Science 307 130–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hung D T, Shakhnovich E A, Pierson E and Mekalanos J J 2005 Small-molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and intestinal colonization Science 310 670–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
James L 2014 Sustainability Footprints in SMEs (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Gates P and Jorgensen (Zevenbergen) R 2015 Shifts in the Field of Mathematics Education: Stephen Lerman and the turn to the social (Singapore: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Barnabas R V, Duerr A C and Wasserheit J N 2009 HIV/AIDS Vaccine Research Public Health Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Low and Middle Income Countries: Epidemiology, Prevention and Care ed D D Celentano and C Beyrer (New York, NY: Springer) pp 85–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2016 Are We Sleeping Less Than We Used To? Here Are The Facts IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1985 Second-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggers M von 2017 Searching for a Post-Jungian Psychophysical Reality in Recovery from Addiction Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lohr S and Alderman L 2017 The Fallout From a Global Cyberattack: ‘A Battle We’re Fighting Every Day’ New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN (print)0957-4484
ISSN (online)1361-6528
General Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

Other styles