How to format your references using the Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macfadden B J 2005 Evolution. Fossil horses--evidence for evolution Science 307 1728–30
A journal article with 2 authors
Raine N E and Gill R J 2015 Ecology: Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field Nature 521 38–40
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Y, Grey F and Zheng Q 2014 The high-speed sliding friction of graphene and novel routes to persistent superlubricity Sci. Rep. 4 4875
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Petrie M, Schwabl H, Brande-Lavridsen N and Burke T 2001 Maternal investment. Sex differences in avian yolk hormone levels Nature 412 498–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grigorenko Y N, Chilingar G V, Sobolev V S, Andiyeva T A and Zhukova L I 2012 Petroleum Accumulation Zones on Continental Margins (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Zaginaichenko S Y, Schur D V, Skorokhod V V, Veziroglu A and İbrahimoğlu B 2011 Carbon Nanomaterials in Clean Energy Hydrogen Systems - II vol 2 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Basanow J, Neis P, Neubauer S, Schilling A and Zipf A 2008 Towards 3D Spatial Data Infrastructures (3D-SDI) based on open standards — experiences, results and future issues Advances in 3D Geoinformation Systems Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography ed P van Oosterom, S Zlatanova, F Penninga and E M Fendel (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 65–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Anti-Aging Study Sees Much-Needed Affirmation IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989 Highway Trust Fund: Condition and Outlook for the Highway Account (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luse K M 2008 Invariants of knots, graphs, and Feynman diagrams Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Specht M H 2015 Cut and Color New York Times BR14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN (print)0957-4484
ISSN (online)1361-6528
General Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

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