How to format your references using the Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P 2002 Building cooperation New York Nature 419 4–5
A journal article with 2 authors
Kulesa P M and Fraser S E 2002 Cell dynamics during somite boundary formation revealed by time-lapse analysis Science 298 991–5
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland J N, Okuyama T and DeAngelis D L 2006 Comment on “Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance” Science 313 1887; author reply 1887
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pang P-C, Chiu P C N, Lee C-L, Chang L-Y, Panico M, Morris H R, Haslam S M, Khoo K-H, Clark G F, Yeung W S B and Dell A 2011 Human sperm binding is mediated by the sialyl-Lewis(x) oligosaccharide on the zona pellucida Science 333 1761–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein L S B and Schneider M 2010 Stem Cells for Dummies® (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
An edited book
Mousa S A and Davis P J 2013 Angiogenesis Modulations in Health and Disease: Practical Applications of Pro- and Anti-angiogenesis Targets (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Adams A E 2016 Relocating the Contributions to Ethnography and Public Anthropology of Antonio Goubaud Carrera (1902–1951), Guatemala’s First Official Indigenist Ethnographic Collaborations in Latin America: The Effects of Globalization ed J C Nash and H C Buechler (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US) pp 67–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Taub B 2016 Birds Really Do Sleep While Flying IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2017 Discretionary Grants: Education Needs to Improve Its Oversight of Grants Monitoring (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindemann-Litzsinger C 2017 Investigating the Possible Relationship Between Participation in High School Athletics and First-Generation College Student Persistence to College Graduation Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norton M B 2012 Woman of the World New York Times BR14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN (print)0957-4484
ISSN (online)1361-6528
General Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

Other styles