How to format your references using the Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaaderen A van 2003 Chemistry. Colloidal molecules and beyond Science 301 470–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirchner J W and Weil A 2000 Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record Nature 404 177–80
A journal article with 3 authors
Frank F, Sonenberg N and Nagar B 2010 Structural basis for 5’-nucleotide base-specific recognition of guide RNA by human AGO2 Nature 465 818–22
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kissel J, Krueger F R, Silén J and Clark B C 2004 The Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer at comet 81P/Wild 2 Science 304 1774–6

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Basset P, Blokhina E and Galayko D 2016 Electrostatic Kinetic Energy Harvesting (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Ataria Y, Gurevitz D, Pedaya H and Neria Y 2016 Interdisciplinary Handbook of Trauma and Culture (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Cardoso M, Carvalho J V and Ramos I 2009 Open Innovation Communities…or should it be “Networks” Web 2.0: The Business Model ed M D Lytras, E Damiani and P Ordóñez de Pablos (Boston, MA: Springer US) pp 1–22

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Taub B 2016 Earliest Evidence Of Right-Handedness In Hominins Could Reveal Origins Of Human Intelligence IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012 Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends, Government Challenges, and International Competitiveness Issues (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pena A M 2012 Perceptions of Spanish/English bilingual school psychologists regarding competency in assessment and future training needs Doctoral dissertation (College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt M S, Apuzzo M and Haberman M 2017 Mueller Is Said to Seek White House Interviews in Russia Inquiry New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN (print)0957-4484
ISSN (online)1361-6528
General Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

Other styles