How to format your references using the Nanotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nanotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hernandez E R 2000 No room on the carousel for meeting of like minds Nature 407 285
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfeiffer B E and Foster D J 2013 Hippocampal place-cell sequences depict future paths to remembered goals Nature 497 74–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirn T J, Jude B A and Taylor R K 2005 A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection Nature 438 863–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hooper I R, Tremain B, Dockrey J A and Hibbins A P 2014 Massively sub-wavelength guiding of electromagnetic waves Sci. Rep. 4 7495

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li C and Lin J 2013 Microwave Noncontact Motion Sensing and Analysis (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Norman G and Sanders W 2014 Quantitative Evaluation of Systems: 11th International Conference, QEST 2014, Florence, Italy, September 8-10, 2014. Proceedings vol 8657 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Siena A, Ingolfo S, Perini A, Susi A and Mylopoulos J 2013 Automated Reasoning for Regulatory Compliance Conceptual Modeling: 32th International Conference, ER 2013, Hong-Kong, China, November 11-13, 2013. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed W Ng, V C Storey and J C Trujillo (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 47–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nanotechnology.

Blog post
Luntz S 2017 New Battery Technologies Developed That Don’t Need Rare Materials IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991 Airline Competition: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green B 2014 Bullying of Individuals with Disabilities on a College Campus: A Qualitative Study Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M 1993 Hillary Clinton Rejects Delay in Health Plan New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN (print)0957-4484
ISSN (online)1361-6528
General Chemistry
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

Other styles