How to format your references using the NanoImpact citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NanoImpact. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Swygenhoven, H., 2002. Polycrystalline materials. Grain boundaries and dislocations. Science 296, 66–67.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orme, C.M., Bogan, J.S., 2009. Cell biology. Sorting out diabetes. Science 324, 1155–1156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Javaux, E.J., Knoll, A.H., Walter, M.R., 2001. Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems. Nature 412, 66–69.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wooding, S., Bufe, B., Grassi, C., Howard, M.T., Stone, A.C., Vazquez, M., Dunn, D.M., Meyerhof, W., Weiss, R.B., Bamshad, M.J., 2006. Independent evolution of bitter-taste sensitivity in humans and chimpanzees. Nature 440, 930–934.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imbriale, W.A., 2005. Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tehranipoor, M., 2014. Integrated Circuit Authentication: Hardware Trojans and Counterfeit Detection. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh, S., Bachhar, T., Maiti, N.S., Mitra, I., Pal Chaudhuri, P., 2010. Theory and Application of Equal Length Cycle Cellular Automata (ELCCA) for Enzyme Classification, in: Bandini, S., Manzoni, S., Umeo, H., Vizzari, G. (Eds.), Cellular Automata: 9th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, ACRI 2010, Ascoli Piceno, Italy, September 21-24, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NanoImpact.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. California Breaks Record After Getting 81 Percent Of Energy From Renewables [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. FDA’s Activities Involving Sanitary Conditions at Food Shortage Warehouses (No. 095804). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashbran, M.C., 2011. Examining student learning in a physics pedagogical content knowledge course (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., Pogrebin, R., 2017. Concern Over Gala As Trumps Bow Out. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Swygenhoven, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Orme and Bogan, 2009; Van Swygenhoven, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orme and Bogan, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wooding et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoImpact
ISSN (print)2452-0748
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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