How to format your references using the NanoImpact citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NanoImpact. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bally, J., 2015. Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole. Nature 524, 301–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quist, D., Chapela, I.H., 2001. Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Nature 414, 541–543.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mutanen, M., Kaila, L., Tabell, J., 2013. Wide-ranging barcoding aids discovery of one-third increase of species richness in presumably well-investigated moths. Sci. Rep. 3, 2901.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saiz-Lopez, A., Mahajan, A.S., Salmon, R.A., Bauguitte, S.J.-B., Jones, A.E., Roscoe, H.K., Plane, J.M.C., 2007. Boundary layer halogens in coastal Antarctica. Science 317, 348–351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thornicroft, G., Semrau, M., Alem, A., Drake, R.E., Ito, H., Mari, J., McGeorge, P., Thara, R., 2011. Community Mental Health. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kouvatsos, D.D. (Ed.), 2011. Network Performance Engineering: A Handbook on Convergent Multi-Service Networks and Next Generation Internet, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rzany, B., 2007. Injection Technique, in: Maio, M. de, Rzany, B. (Eds.), Botulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NanoImpact.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Here’s The Real Reason Your Friend’s “Gluten-Free” Diet Might Be Making Them Feel Better [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1995-97 (No. IAP-95-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vu, M.K., 2015. Reducing mental health provider burnout through wellness: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2006. Russia Inaugurates Book Prize. It’s Big. New York Times E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bally, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bally, 2015; Quist and Chapela, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quist and Chapela, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Saiz-Lopez et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoImpact
ISSN (print)2452-0748
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

Other styles