How to format your references using the NanoImpact citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NanoImpact. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, D.W., 2015. Microbiology. Persisters unmasked. Science 347, 30–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trenberth, K.E., Fasullo, J.T., 2010. Climate change. Tracking Earth’s energy. Science 328, 316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, P.D., Day, T., Wild, G., 2007. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature 447, 469–472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zinner, D., Alberts, S.C., Nunn, C.L., Altmann, J., 2002. Evolutionary biology: significance of primate sexual swellings. Nature 420, 142–3; discussion 143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schweiker, W., 2010. Dust that Breathes. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kim, T.-H., Adeli, H., Robles, R.J., Balitanas, M. (Eds.), 2011. Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Applications: Second International Conference, UCMA 2011, Daejeon, Korea, April 13-15, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Valmari, A., Franceschinis, G., 2010. Simple O(m logn) Time Markov Chain Lumping, in: Esparza, J., Majumdar, R. (Eds.), Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 16th International Conference, TACAS 2010, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-28, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 38–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NanoImpact.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. First Known Mass Extinction May Have Been Caused By Huge Volcanic Eruptions In Australia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Comments on Claim Against Mississippi for Disallowed Educational Grant Expenditures (No. B-198493). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lavoie, D., 2010. Ecotone (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Memories Translate Well for Lendl. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Holden, 2015; Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zinner et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoImpact
ISSN (print)2452-0748
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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