How to format your references using the NanoImpact citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NanoImpact. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchman, T.G., 2002. The community of the self. Nature 420, 246–251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belden, W.J., Barlowe, C., 2001. Role of Erv29p in collecting soluble secretory proteins into ER-derived transport vesicles. Science 294, 1528–1531.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attardo, A., Fitzgerald, J.E., Schnitzer, M.J., 2015. Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus. Nature 523, 592–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frazier, M.E., Johnson, G.M., Thomassen, D.G., Oliver, C.E., Patrinos, A., 2003. Realizing the potential of the genome revolution: the genomes to life program. Science 300, 290–293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keegan, K.D., 2008. Biotechnology Valuation. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Liersch, R., Berdel, W.E., Kessler, T. (Eds.), 2010. Angiogenesis Inhibition, Recent Results in Cancer Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinclair, C., Macleod, H., 2015. Literally Virtual: The Reality of the Online Teacher, in: Jandrić, P., Boras, D. (Eds.), Critical Learning in Digital Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NanoImpact.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. A Man Switched A Helicopter Engine Off Mid-Flight To Prove A Point [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Several Challenges Could Arise in Administering a Subsidy Program for DTV Equipment (No. GAO-05-623T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan, A.D., 2008. Measuring the efficacy of a Ninth Grade Academy on students with disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., Eder, S., 2017. Trump Adviser Tied to Goldman to Sell Chinese Bank Stake. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buchman, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Belden and Barlowe, 2001; Buchman, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belden and Barlowe, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Frazier et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleNanoImpact
ISSN (print)2452-0748
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Materials Science (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Safety Research

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