How to format your references using the Development in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J. 2001. “Physical Sciences Lose Ground as US Shifts towards Biology.” Nature 412 (6844): 259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoshi, Toshinori, and Sukhamay Lahiri. 2004. “Cell Biology. Oxygen Sensing: It’s a Gas!” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5704): 2050–2051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Séguin, Béatrice, Peter A. Singer, and Abdallah S. Daar. 2006. “Science Community: Scientific Diasporas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5780): 1602–1603.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Melillo, J. M., P. A. Steudler, J. D. Aber, K. Newkirk, H. Lux, F. P. Bowles, C. Catricala, A. Magill, T. Ahrens, and S. Morrisseau. 2002. “Soil Warming and Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2173–2176.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tiwari, Ashutosh, Rosario A. Gerhardt, and Magdalena Szutkowska. 2016. Advanced Ceramic Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shahzad, Anwar, Shiwali Sharma, and Saeed A. Siddiqui, eds. 2016. Biotechnological Strategies for the Conservation of Medicinal and Ornamental Climbers. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Franche, Claudine, and Didier Bogusz. 2012. “Signalling and Communication in the Actinorhizal Symbiosis.” In Signaling and Communication in Plant Symbiosis, edited by Silvia Perotto and František Baluška, 73–92. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Google Seeks to Integrate Cameras Into Contact Lenses.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Federal Motor Vehicles: Agencies’ Progress in Meeting Expenditure Control Requirements. GGD-88-40. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernal, Elaine. 2013. “Ethnographic Research of Emergent Cultural Themes from Technology-Based Informal Education in a Museum.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Dylan’s Tapes Find a Direction Home.” New York Times, November 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Knight 2001; Hoshi and Lahiri 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoshi and Lahiri 2004)
  • Three authors: (Séguin, Singer, and Daar 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Melillo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment in Practice
AbbreviationDev. Pract.
ISSN (print)0961-4524
ISSN (online)1364-9213
Geography, Planning and Development

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