How to format your references using the Development in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greider, Carol W. 2012. “Molecular Biology. Wnt Regulates TERT--Putting the Horse before the Cart.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6088): 1519–1520.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joughin, Ian, and Slawek Tulaczyk. 2002. “Positive Mass Balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5554): 476–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riddihough, Guy, Beverly A. Purnell, and John Travis. 2008. “Freedom of Expression. Introduction to Special Issue.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5871): 1781.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lagrange, A-M, M. Bonnefoy, G. Chauvin, D. Apai, D. Ehrenreich, A. Boccaletti, D. Gratadour, et al. 2010. “A Giant Planet Imaged in the Disk of the Young Star Beta Pictoris.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5987): 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechni, K. Laackmann, H. Balthaus, O. Braach, W-D Friebel, A. Hettler, B. Maidl, et al. 2015. Taschenbuch Für Den Tunnelbau 2015. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cleophas, Ton J. 2014. Machine Learning in Medicine - Cookbook Two. Edited by Aeilko H. Zwinderman. Vol. 49. SpringerBriefs in Statistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, Min, Mingtao Pei, Yuwei Wu, Bo Ma, and Yunde Jia. 2013. “Online-Learning Structural Appearance Model for Robust Visual Tracking.” In Intelligence Science and Big Data Engineering: 4th International Conference, IScIDE 2013, Beijing, China, July 31 – August 2, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Changyin Sun, Fang Fang, Zhi-Hua Zhou, Wankou Yang, and Zhi-Yong Liu, 30–39. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “How A Saviour Of The Ozone Hole Became A Climate Change Villain – And How We’re Going To Fix It.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Bilingual Education: Four Overlapping Programs Could Be Consolidated. GAO-01-657. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salam, Sajjad. 2017. “Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2007. “I’m a Lumber Jack (Omelet, That Is).” New York Times, April 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greider 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Greider 2012; Joughin and Tulaczyk 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joughin and Tulaczyk 2002)
  • Three authors: (Riddihough, Purnell, and Travis 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lagrange et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment in Practice
AbbreviationDev. Pract.
ISSN (print)0961-4524
ISSN (online)1364-9213
Geography, Planning and Development

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