How to format your references using the Development in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrlich, Paul R. 2010. “Retrospective. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5993): 776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nudds, Robert L., and Gareth J. Dyke. 2010. “Narrow Primary Feather Rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx Suggest Poor Flight Ability.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5980): 887–889.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, L. J., A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu. 2000. “Gain-Assisted Superluminal Light Propagation.” Nature 406 (6793): 277–279.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murakami, Katsuhiko S., Shoko Masuda, Elizabeth A. Campbell, Oriana Muzzin, and Seth A. Darst. 2002. “Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: An RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme-DNA Complex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5571): 1285–1290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, Alan. 2008. A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ramina, Ricardo. 2008. Samii’s Essentials in Neurosurgery. Edited by Marco Tatagiba. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Yitian. 2010. “Local Community of Eco-Politics: Its Potentials and Limitations.” In Eco-Socialism as Politics: Rebuilding the Basis of Our Modern Civilisation, edited by Qingzhi Huan, 63–73. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Tigers Can Roam For Hundreds Of Miles – Should They Ever Be Kept In Zoos?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Aviation Safety: Slow Progress in Making Aircraft Cabin Interiors Fireproof. RCED-93-37. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabak, Shana. 2015. “Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: TV Journalist Suspended For Comment.” New York Times, December 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrlich 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrlich 2010; Nudds and Dyke 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nudds and Dyke 2010)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogariu 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment in Practice
AbbreviationDev. Pract.
ISSN (print)0961-4524
ISSN (online)1364-9213
Geography, Planning and Development

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