How to format your references using the Development in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, Monya. 2010. “Structural Biology: The Gatekeepers Revealed.” Nature 465 (7299): 823–826.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, Andrew J., and Philip R. Christensen. 2012. “Coils and Polygonal Crust in the Athabasca Valles Region, Mars, as Evidence for a Volcanic History.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6080): 449–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aviezer, Hillel, Yaacov Trope, and Alexander Todorov. 2012. “Body Cues, Not Facial Expressions, Discriminate between Intense Positive and Negative Emotions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6111): 1225–1229.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zheng, Hui, Ruoxuan Li, Jieni Zhang, Shaonan Zhou, Qingwei Ma, Yanheng Zhou, Feng Chen, and Jiuxiang Lin. 2014. “Salivary Biomarkers Indicate Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche, Tertulien. 2016. Digital Electronics 3. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guilmoto, Christophe Z., and Gavin W. Jones, eds. 2016. Contemporary Demographic Transformations in China, India and Indonesia. Vol. 5. Demographic Transformation and Socio-Economic Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders, Alan R. 2014. “Genetics of Schizophrenia.” In Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment, edited by Philip G. Janicak, Stephen R. Marder, Rajiv Tandon, and Morris Goldman, 59–70. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Chimpanzees Are Over-Hunting Their Prey To Local Extinction.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Assessment of Bilateral Telecommunications Agreements With Japan. NSIAD-84-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dashevsky-Kerdman, Irina. 2009. “The Meeting of One Hundred Ways.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, Linda. 2008. “The Little Battles We Must Win.” New York Times, November 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2010; Ryan and Christensen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ryan and Christensen 2012)
  • Three authors: (Aviezer, Trope, and Todorov 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment in Practice
AbbreviationDev. Pract.
ISSN (print)0961-4524
ISSN (online)1364-9213
Geography, Planning and Development

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