How to format your references using the Development in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Development in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann, Katharina. 2003. “Anthropology. New Guinea: A Cradle of Agriculture.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5630): 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery, N. J., and N. S. Clayton. 2001. “Effects of Experience and Social Context on Prospective Caching Strategies by Scrub Jays.” Nature 414 (6862): 443–446.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi, Javier Buceta, and Ramon Reigada. 2013. “Interplay of Cytoskeletal Activity and Lipid Phase Stability in Dynamic Protein Recruitment and Clustering.” Scientific Reports 3: 2608.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kessel, Ronit, Max W. Schmidt, Peter Ulmer, and Thomas Pettke. 2005. “Trace Element Signature of Subduction-Zone Fluids, Melts and Supercritical Liquids at 120-180 Km Depth.” Nature 437 (7059): 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meiswinkel, Rüdiger, Julian Meyer, and Jürgen Schnell. 2013. Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Holzinger, Andreas, and Gabriella Pasi, eds. 2013. Human-Computer Interaction and Knowledge Discovery in Complex, Unstructured, Big Data: Third International Workshop, HCI-KDD 2013, Held at SouthCHI 2013, Maribor, Slovenia, July 1-3, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7947. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Giorgi, Ennio. 2013. “1995.” In Storie e Protagonisti Della Matematica Italiana: Per Raccontare 20 Anni Di «Lettera Matematica Pristem», edited by Renato Betti, Angelo Guerraggio, and Settimo Termini, 65–78. I Blu. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Development in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Rhythm On The Brain, And Why We Can’t Stop Dancing.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Job Corps: High Costs and Mixed Results Raise Questions About Program’s Effectiveness. HEHS-95-180. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bardhoshi, Gerta. 2012. “The Relationship Between Assignment of Non-Counseling Duties and Burnout Among Professional School Counselors.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “On Infrastructure, Claims That Don’t Quite Get Off the Ground.” New York Times, June 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neumann 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Neumann 2003; Emery and Clayton 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery and Clayton 2001)
  • Three authors: (Gómez-Llobregat, Buceta, and Reigada 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kessel et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDevelopment in Practice
AbbreviationDev. Pract.
ISSN (print)0961-4524
ISSN (online)1364-9213
Geography, Planning and Development

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