How to format your references using the Epigenetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. Spending stalemate. Nature 2007; 449:962.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kronenberg M, Havran WL. Immunology: oiling the wheels of autoimmunity. Nature 2014; 506:42–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silva-Santos B, Pennington DJ, Hayday AC. Lymphotoxin-mediated regulation of gammadelta cell differentiation by alphabeta T cell progenitors. Science 2005; 307:925–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Eggert D, Naumann M, Reimer R, Voigt CA. Nanoscale glucan polymer network causes pathogen resistance. Sci Rep 2014; 4:4159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratzliff A, Unutzer J, Katon W, Stephens KA. Integrated Care. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Awad AI, Hassaballah M, editors. Image Feature Detectors and Descriptors: Foundations and Applications. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Wester R. Thermomechanics. In: Poprawe R, editor. Tailored Light 2: Laser Application Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. page 63–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenetics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Jupiter’s Largest Moon Gets Mapped For the First Time [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:’s-largest-moon-gets-mapped-first-time/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Internal Control Weaknesses Need to Be Corrected to Help Achieve Security Objectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper MH. A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Just Call Them Edwardian. New York Times2010; :E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenetics
ISSN (print)1559-2294
ISSN (online)1559-2308
ScopeCancer Research
Molecular Biology

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