How to format your references using the Materials Today Nano citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Nano. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G.R. Lewin, Evolution. Natural selection and pain meet at a sodium channel, Science. 342 (2013) 428–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.C. Yoo, G. Lubec, p25 protein in neurodegeneration, Nature. 411 (2001) 763–4; discussion 764-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.-Y. Liu, J.-J. Slotine, A.-L. Barabási, Controllability of complex networks, Nature. 473 (2011) 167–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Nishikawa, M. Iga, J. Yamaguchi, K. Saito, H. Kataoka, Y. Suzuki, S. Sugano, H. Fujiwara, Molecular basis of wing coloration in a Batesian mimic butterfly, Papilio polytes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Stoop, J. Billiet, A. Koch, R. Fitzgerald, Improving Survey Response, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
S. Meleard, Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Séguy, L. Buchet, Establishing a Reference Population, in: L. Buchet (Ed.), Handbook of Palaeodemography, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013: pp. 53–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Nano.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Study of 100 Billion Animals Finds GMOs Safe, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Huang, Optimal control of heat engines in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, In World of Finance, She Has Already Driven the Green, New York Times. (2012) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Nano
ISSN (print)2588-8420

Other styles