How to format your references using the Nano Communication Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Communication Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.W. Tsai, The M.D.-Ph.D. double agent, Science. 350 (2015) 1434.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.Q. Liu, S.G. Cull-Candy, Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype, Nature. 405 (2000) 454–458.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Schummers, H. Yu, M. Sur, Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex, Science. 320 (2008) 1638–1643.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Lu, Y. Gu, J. Feng, W. Zhou, X. Yang, Y. Shen, Structural insight into the central element assembly of the synaptonemal complex, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Ferdjallah, Introduction to Digital Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
V.J. Karplus, Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Kumar, R. Gulati, A Survey of Empirical Literature on Bank Efficiency, in: R. Gulati (Ed.), Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks, Springer India, New Delhi, 2014: pp. 119–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Communication Networks.

Blog post
S. Luntz, New Planetary System Discovered Just 54 Light-Years Away, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Private Screening Contractors Have Little Flexibility to Implement Innovative Approaches, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Donihoo, Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. Kanter, An Olio of E.U. Rules, Leading to Food Fights, New York Times. (2017) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Communication Networks
AbbreviationNano Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1878-7789
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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