How to format your references using the Nano Communication Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano Communication Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Gibson, Cancer: Directions for the drivers, Nature. 512 (2014) 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.A. Rice, R. Haselkorn, Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011), Nature. 481 (2012) 266.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Lü, Z.-K. Zhang, T. Zhou, Deviation of Zipf’s and Heaps’ Laws in human languages with limited dictionary sizes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Bökel, A. Schwabedissen, E. Entchev, O. Renaud, M. González-Gaitán, Sara endosomes and the maintenance of Dpp signaling levels across mitosis, Science. 314 (2006) 1135–1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, S.A. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 2001.
An edited book
S. Ulmer, O. Jansen, eds., fMRI: Basics and Clinical Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
T.A. Surovell, N.M. Waguespack, Human Prey Choice in the Late Pleistocene and Its Relation to Megafaunal Extinctions, in: G. Haynes (Ed.), American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 77–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano Communication Networks.

Blog post
T. Hale, Scientists Want To Study LSD Microdosing For The First Time, But They Need Your Help, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Should Provide the Congress with More Information on the Pioneer Venus Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.A. Stewart, Principals’ post-observation feedback and its influence on teacher professional growth at two Southern California Catholic high schools, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, For de Blasio, So Many Jobs to Fill, So Little Time, New York Times. (2013) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano Communication Networks
AbbreviationNano Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1878-7789
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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