How to format your references using the Journal of General Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nielsen J. BIOENGINEERING. Yeast cell factories on the horizon. Science 2015;349:1050–1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joyce JA, Fearon DT. T cell exclusion, immune privilege, and the tumor microenvironment. Science 2015;348:74–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
De Pontieu B, Erdélyi R, James SP. Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows. Nature 2004;430:536–539.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Nelson C, Goto S, Lund K, Hung W, Sadowski I. Srb10/Cdk8 regulates yeast filamentous growth by phosphorylating the transcription factor Ste12. Nature 2003;421:187–190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shamah S. A Currency Options Primer. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Thornhill R. The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality: Infectious Disease, History and Human Values Worldwide. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Weert P, Sneyers J, Demoen B. Aggregates for CHR through Program Transformation. In: King A (editor). Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 17th International Symposium, LOPSTR 2007, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, August 23-24, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Virology.

Blog post
Fang J. Where In The Ocean Did Iconic Spiral Ammonites Live? IFLScience. (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Flexibility in Federal-Aid Funding Essential to Highway Program Restructuring. T-RCED-91-4; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 10 December 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carman SB. Leadership style and church attendance: An ex post facto study of Churches of Christ in Texas. Doctoral Dissertation; Capella University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by BEN SISARIO. Graphic Bullying. New York Times, 5 June 2010, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Virology
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-1317
ISSN (online)1465-2099

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