How to format your references using the Journal of General Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi B. Microbiome: The surface brigade. Nature 2012;492:S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn NG, Resing KA. Cell biology. Lessons in rational drug design for protein kinases. Science 2005;308:1266–1267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang K, Dickinson RE, Liang S. Clear sky visibility has decreased over land globally from 1973 to 2007. Science 2009;323:1468–1470.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
DePaolo RW, Abadie V, Tang F, Fehlner-Peach H, Hall JA, et al. Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens. Nature 2011;471:220–224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans R. Seven Secrets of the Savvy School Leader. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2010.
An edited book
Di Nardo A. Water Supply Network District Metering: Theory and Case Study. Vienna: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Chase JG, Le Compte AJ, Evans A, Ward L, Steel J, et al. Tight Glycemic Control in Intensive Care: From Engineering to Clinical Practice Change. In: Jobbágy Á (editor). 5th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering: 14–18 September 2011, Budapest, Hungary. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. pp. 11–14.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Virology.

Blog post
Hale T. This Futuristic 'Straddling Bus” Can Drive Itself Over Cars. IFLScience. (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Uncertainty Remains about the Bureau’s Readiness for a Key Decennial Census Test. GAO-17-221T; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 16 November 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jategaonkar SP. Two essays on stock repurchases and insider trading. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Whitney: Can I Be Me. New York Times, 17 August 2017, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Virology
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-1317
ISSN (online)1465-2099

Other styles