How to format your references using the Journal of General Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of General Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dupas P. Getting essential health products to their end users: subsidize, but how much? Science 2014;345:1279–1281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pilkey OH, Cooper JAG. Climate. Society and sea level rise. Science 2004;303:1781–1782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang TJ, Carpenter D, Kesselheim AS. Target small firms for antibiotic innovation. Science 2014;344:967–969.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Park JH, Scheerer P, Hofmann KP, Choe H-W, Ernst OP. Crystal structure of the ligand-free G-protein-coupled receptor opsin. Nature 2008;454:183–187.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salam A. Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Attarian HP. Atlas of Electroencephalography in Sleep Medicine. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Isabelle AD, Valle NZ. Technology. In: Valle NZ (editor). Inspiring STEM Minds: Biographies and Activities for Elementary Classrooms. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. pp. 87–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of General Virology.

Blog post
Hale T. Do You Have Seasonal Affective Disorder? IFLScience. (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Direct Broadcast Satellite Subscribership Has Grown Rapidly, but Varies across Different Types of Markets. GAO-05-257; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 6 April 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan A. The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Future Hits No. 1 on Billboard Chart. New York Times, 27 February 2017, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of General Virology
AbbreviationJ. Gen. Virol.
ISSN (print)0022-1317
ISSN (online)1465-2099

Other styles