How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asplund, M., 2008. Astronomy. The shining make-up of our star. Science 322, 51–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tamaru, H., Selker, E.U., 2001. A histone H3 methyltransferase controls DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa. Nature 414, 277–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bobrov, K., Mayne, A.J., Dujardin, G., 2001. Atomic-scale imaging of insulating diamond through resonant electron injection. Nature 413, 616–619.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sime, L.C., Wolff, E.W., Oliver, K.I.C., Tindall, J.C., 2009. Evidence for warmer interglacials in East Antarctic ice cores. Nature 462, 342–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill, R., Solt, G., 2010. Engineering Money. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alpay, D., 2016. Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito, M., 2016. Cardion.spec: An Approach to Improve the Requirements Specification Written in the Natural Language Through the Formal Method, in: Kreiner, C., O’Connor, R.V., Poth, A., Messnarz, R. (Eds.), Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 23rd European Conference, EuroSPI 2016, Graz, Austria, September 14-16, 2016, Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 58–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Galaxy Collisions Might Be Shrouding Black Holes In Dust [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Selected Information on Bypass of Local Telephone Companies (No. RCED-86-100). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, S.E., 2014. A case of rational irrationality: Evidence of expressive interest bias in state e-commerce sales and use tax legislation (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., 2017. Giving Advice, Business Titans Feel at Home in White House. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asplund, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Asplund, 2008; Tamaru and Selker, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tamaru and Selker, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Sime et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

Other styles