How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patek, S.N., 2014. Materials science. Biomimetics and evolution. Science 345, 1448–1449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beroza, G.C., Ide, S., 2009. Geophysics. Deep tremors and slow quakes. Science 324, 1025–1026.
A journal article with 3 authors
Widom, C.S., Czaja, S.J., DuMont, K.A., 2015. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias? Science 347, 1480–1485.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamada, H., Ogawa, Y., Ishii, Y., Sato, H., Kawasaki, M., Akoh, H., Tokura, Y., 2004. Engineered interface of magnetic oxides. Science 305, 646–648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez, J., 2011. Handbook of Corporate Equity Derivatives and Equity Capital Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Dash, S.S., Bhaskar, M.A., Panigrahi, B.K., Das, S. (Eds.), 2016. Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAIECES 2015, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Huysmans, P., Verelst, J., 2013. Towards an Engineering-Based Research Approach for Enterprise Architecture: Lessons Learned from Normalized Systems Theory, in: Franch, X., Soffer, P. (Eds.), Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2013 International Workshops, Valencia, Spain, June 17-21, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 58–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Now Everyone Can Help Astronomers Hunt Down Supernovae [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Truck Safety: Share the Road Safely Pilot Initiative Showed Promise, but the Program’s Future Success Is Uncertain (No. GAO-06-916). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grantham, S.C., 2014. Dual Eligibles’ Experience of Care in North Carolina’s Patient-Centered Medical Home (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010. Treasury Hid A.I.G. Loss, Report Says. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patek, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Beroza and Ide, 2009; Patek, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beroza and Ide, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamada et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

Other styles