How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, W.R., 2000. A deeply knotted protein structure and how it might fold. Nature 406, 916–919.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oki, T., Kanae, S., 2006. Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science 313, 1068–1072.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chesler, E.J., Rodriguez-Zas, S.L., Mogil, J.S., 2001. In silico mapping of mouse quantitative trait loci. Science 294, 2423.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Katano, Y., Nakano, K., Otsuki, M., Matsukawa, H., 2014. Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping. Sci. Rep. 4, 6324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, Y., 2015. Computer Principles and Design in Verilog HDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Parsons, S., Maudet, N., Moraitis, P., Rahwan, I. (Eds.), 2006. Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems: Second International Workshop, ArgMAS 2005 Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 26, 2005 Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo, C., Liu, Y., Zhang, M., Ma, S., 2014. Query Ambiguity Identification Based on User Behavior Information, in: Jaafar, A., Mohamad Ali, N., Mohd Noah, S.A., Smeaton, A.F., Bruza, P., Bakar, Z.A., Jamil, N., Sembok, T.M.T. (Eds.), Information Retrieval Technology: 10th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2014, Kuching, Malaysia, December 3-5, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. People Who Trim Their Pubes Are More Likely To Have An STI [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Student Testing: Issues Related to Voluntary National Mathematics and Reading Tests (No. HEHS-98-163). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purnell, C.P., 2012. Exploring teachers’ perceptions of professional development in virtual learning teams (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2015. Puerto Rico Utility and Bondholders Agree to Keep Working on a Deal. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Oki and Kanae, 2006; Taylor, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oki and Kanae, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Katano et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

Other styles