How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sweatt, J.D., 2010. Neuroscience. Epigenetics and cognitive aging. Science 328, 701–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hatzor, A., Weiss, P., 2001. Molecular rulers for scaling down nanostructures. Science 291, 1019–1020.
A journal article with 3 authors
Casanueva, M.O., Burga, A., Lehner, B., 2012. Fitness trade-offs and environmentally induced mutation buffering in isogenic C. elegans. Science 335, 82–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Manda, A., Nakamura, H., Asano, N., Iizuka, S., Miyama, T., Moteki, Q., Yoshioka, M.K., Nishii, K., Miyasaka, T., 2014. Impacts of a warming marginal sea on torrential rainfall organized under the Asian summer monsoon. Sci. Rep. 4, 5741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, R.A., 2012. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brodt, P. (Ed.), 2011. Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management, Cancer Metastasis - Biology and Treatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hill, R., 2014. Chapter 4 Internet Governance: The Last Gasp of Colonialism, or Imperialism by Other Means?, in: Radu, R., Chenou, J.-M., Weber, R.H. (Eds.), The Evolution of Global Internet Governance: Principles and Policies in the Making. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. Ancient Mayan Village Preserved In Volcanic Ash Lets Us Peer Into The Lives Of Ordinary People [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Financial Market Preparedness: Improvements Made, but More Action Needed to Prepare for Wide-Scale Disasters (No. GAO-04-984). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Culver, M.D., 2015. Assessing the influence of emotional intelligence on effective fire service leadership (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. A Law School Graduates From Junior High. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sweatt, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hatzor and Weiss, 2001; Sweatt, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hatzor and Weiss, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Manda et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

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