How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCaffrey, R., 2007. Geophysics. The next great earthquake. Science 315, 1675–1676.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taleff, E.M., Pedrazas, N.A., 2013. Materials science. A new route for growing large grains in metals. Science 341, 1461–1462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackerman, J.M., Nocera, C.C., Bargh, J.A., 2010. Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions. Science 328, 1712–1715.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Badyaev, A.V., Hill, G.E., Beck, M.L., Dervan, A.A., Duckworth, R.A., McGraw, K.J., Nolan, P.M., Whittingham, L.A., 2002. Sex-biased hatching order and adaptive population divergence in a passerine bird. Science 295, 316–318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Bodic, G., 2005. Mobile Messaging Technologies and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Barni, M., Herrera-Joancomartí, J., Katzenbeisser, S., Pérez-González, F. (Eds.), 2005. Information Hiding: 7th International Workshop, IH 2005, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-8, 2005. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wong, J.L.-N., 2006. THE EFFECTS OF LOCAL INTERPRETATION OF DECENTRALIZATION POLICY ON SCHOOL AUTONOMY IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE OF CHINA, in: Bjork, C. (Ed.), Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions, EDUCATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES, CONCERNS AND PROSPECTS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Scientists Reset Stem Cells to Study Us at Our Fully Pristine State [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: DEA Has Developed Plans and Established Controls for Business Continuity Planning (No. AIMD-00-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
VanQuickenborne, T., 2010. Exploring generative change (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cotter, H., 2017. A Chinatown Installation Aims to Provoke. New York Times C19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCaffrey, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (McCaffrey, 2007; Taleff and Pedrazas, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taleff and Pedrazas, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Badyaev et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

Other styles