How to format your references using the Musculoskeletal Science and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C., 2006. Computer science. What do robots dream of? Science 314, 1093–1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liston, C., Kagan, J., 2002. Brain development: memory enhancement in early childhood. Nature 419, 896.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmauss, C., Lee-McDermott, Z., Medina, L.R., 2014. Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior. Sci. Rep. 4, 4873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, L., Ou, Q.-D., Chen, J.-D., Shen, S., Tang, J.-X., Li, Y.-Q., Lee, S.-T., 2014. Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures. Sci. Rep. 4, 4040.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee, D.C., 2005. Freshwater Microbiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ho, Y.-S., Kim, H.-J. (Eds.), 2005. Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2005: 6th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Jeju Island, Korea, November 13-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Swaab, D.F., 2011. Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male/Female Behaviour, in: Beets, G., Schippers, J., te Velde, E.R. (Eds.), The Future of Motherhood in Western Societies: Late Fertility and Its Consequences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Musculoskeletal Science and Practice.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Hydrogen-Generating Water Splitter Runs on AAA Battery [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Aviation Security: DHS and TSA Have Researched, Developed, and Begun Deploying Passenger Checkpoint Screening Technologies, but Continue to Face Challenges (No. GAO-10-128). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios, J., 2015. Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M., 2017. How Much Space for the Money? New York Times RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Adami, 2006; Liston and Kagan, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liston and Kagan, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMusculoskeletal Science and Practice
ISSN (print)2468-7812

Other styles