How to format your references using the Multimedia Tools and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Tools and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Adam D (2001) Reef gets off the starting blocks. Nature 410:1012
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Yin Y, Alivisatos AP (2005) Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis and the organic-inorganic interface. Nature 437:664–670
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chen IA, Roberts RW, Szostak JW (2004) The emergence of competition between model protocells. Science 305:1474–1476
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Ran J, Wu L, Wei B, et al (2014) Simultaneous enhancements of conductivity and stability for anion exchange membranes (AEMs) through precise structure design. Sci Rep 4:6486

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Costa PJ (2017) Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Shiffman MA, Di Giuseppe A (2013) Cosmetic Surgery: Art and Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Tum M, Günther KP, Kappas M (2013) A Process-Based Vegetation Model for Estimating Agricultural Bioenergy Potentials. In: Ruppert H, Kappas M, Ibendorf J (eds) Sustainable Bioenergy Production - An Integrated Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 97–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Tools and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Could Aspirin Reverse Increased Cancer Risk In Overweight People? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2000) Mass Transit: Review of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District’s Airport Extension Finance Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gilbert SA (2017) Succession Planning Relating to the Millennial Generation in Private Four-Year Universities. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K (2007) After a Fire, A Fishery Is Restocked. New York Times NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Tools and Applications
AbbreviationMultimed. Tools Appl.
ISSN (print)1380-7501
ISSN (online)1573-7721
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Software
Media Technology

Other styles