How to format your references using the Multimedia Tools and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Tools and Applications (Multimed Tools Appl). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Goldston D (2009) Sending out an SOS. Nature 460:679
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
David LA, Alm EJ (2011) Rapid evolutionary innovation during an Archaean genetic expansion. Nature 469:93–96
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhang PC, Keleshian AM, Sachs F (2001) Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature 413:428–432
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Brivanlou AH, Gage FH, Jaenisch R, et al (2003) Stem cells. Setting standards for human embryonic stem cells. Science 300:913–916

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kukushkin A (2004) Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
1.
Vinyard C, Ravosa MJ, Wall C (2008) Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stone EE, Skubic M (2015) Testing Real-Time In-Home Fall Alerts with Embedded Depth Video Hyperlink. In: Bodine C, Helal S, Gu T, Mokhtari M (eds) Smart Homes and Health Telematics: 12th International Conference, ICOST 2014, Denver, CO, USA, June 25-27, 2014, Revised Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 41–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Tools and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Hummingbird Tongues Are Tiny Pumps That Spring Open To Draw In Nectar. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/hummingbird-tongues-are-tiny-pumps-spring-open-draw-nectar/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2011) Information Security: State Has Taken Steps to Implement a Continuous Monitoring Application, but Key Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Lewis DS (2010) Global Educational Ecosystem: Case study of a partnership with K–12 schools, community organizations, and business. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L (2006) For $37.5 Million, the Piano Man’s Estate. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Tools and Applications
AbbreviationMultimed. Tools Appl.
ISSN (print)1380-7501
ISSN (online)1573-7721
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Software
Media Technology

Other styles