How to format your references using the Multimedia Tools and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multimedia Tools and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Livingston JD (2000) An electromagnetic personality. Nature 407:453
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ravizza G, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B (2003) Chemostratigraphic evidence of Deccan volcanism from the marine osmium isotope record. Science 302:1392–1395
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yang X, Zhou Y, Xiao M (2013) Entangler via electromagnetically induced transparency with an atomic ensemble. Sci Rep 3:3479
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zhang P, Xiao BB, Hou XL, et al (2014) Layered SiC sheets: a potential catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Sci Rep 4:3821

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zigangirov KS (2004) Theory of Code Division Multiple Access Communication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Katoen J-P, König B (2011) CONCUR 2011 – Concurrency Theory: 22nd International Conference, CONCUR 2011, Aachen, Germany, September 6-9, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hafez AI, Hassanien AE, Fahmy AA (2014) Testing Community Detection Algorithms: A Closer Look at Datasets. In: Panda M, Dehuri S, Wang G-N (eds) Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multimedia Tools and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) No, Chocolate Probably Won’t Protect You From Heart Disease and Stroke. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/chocolate-probably-won-t-protect-you-heart-disease-and-stroke/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1988) Airspace Use: FAA Needs to Improve Its Management of Special Use Airspace. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Soheili A (2008) A transannular Cope approach toward the core structure of isocyclocitrinol. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow K (2003) Reclaiming a Shabby Block of Maritime History. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMultimedia Tools and Applications
AbbreviationMultimed. Tools Appl.
ISSN (print)1380-7501
ISSN (online)1573-7721
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Software
Media Technology

Other styles