How to format your references using the Mucosal Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mucosal Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milburn, G. J. Physics. Demonstrating uncertainty. Science 339, 770–771 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Wicherts, J. M. & Scholten, A. Z. Comment on ‘Poverty impedes cognitive function’. Science 342, 1169 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Phillips, B. L., Casey, W. H. & Karlsson, M. Bonding and reactivity at oxide mineral surfaces from model aqueous complexes. Nature 404, 379–382 (2000).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Crawley, M. J., Brown, S. L., Hails, R. S., Kohn, D. D. & Rees, M. Transgenic crops in natural habitats. Nature 409, 682–683 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, D. J. Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM). (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2008).
An edited book
Li, H.-X. Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Nonlinear Distributed Parameter Systems: A Time/Space Separation Based Approach. 50, (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Boland, C. R. DNA Mismatch Repair. In Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (Rodriguez-Bigas, M. A., Cutait, R., Lynch, P. M., Tomlinson, I. & Vasen, H. F. A.) 67–85 (Springer US, Boston, MA, 2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mucosal Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Successfully Sequence Complete Genomes Of Two Woolly Mammoths. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Critical Infrastructure Protection: Sector-Specific Agencies Need to Better Measure Cybersecurity Progress. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malherek, M. N. The Prevalence and Predictors of Parental Corporal Punishment in the United States. (2016).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. July’s Most Popular Listings. New York Times RE2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMucosal Immunology
AbbreviationMucosal Immunol.
ISSN (print)1933-0219
ISSN (online)1935-3456
Immunology and Allergy

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