How to format your references using the Mucosal Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mucosal Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. F. Development. There’s something curious about paternal-age effects. Science 301, 606–607 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
KewalRamani, V. N. & Coffin, J. M. Virology. Weapons of mutational destruction. Science 301, 923–925 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Doniger, D. D., Herzog, A. V. & Lashof, D. A. Climate change. An ambitious, centrist approach to global warming legislation. Science 314, 764–765 (2006).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Zhang, Y. et al. Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons. Nature 418, 331–335 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cofnas, A. Trading Binary Options. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
Sustainable Future Energy Technology and Supply Chains: A Multi-perspective Analysis. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Porter, L. M. & Garber, P. A. Social Behavior of Callimicos: Mating Strategies and Infant Care. In The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation (Ford, S. M., Porter, L. M. & Davis, L. C.) 87–101 (Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mucosal Immunology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Tiny Satellites Discover Biggest Stellar Heartbeat. IFLScience (2017).at <;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: TSA Is Taking Steps to Validate the Science Underlying Its Passenger Behavior Detection Program, but Efforts May Not Be Comprehensive. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, D. Event detection in sensor networks. (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. The Most Crucial Battles Will Be Off the Field. New York Times SP11 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMucosal Immunology
AbbreviationMucosal Immunol.
ISSN (print)1933-0219
ISSN (online)1935-3456
Immunology and Allergy

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