How to format your references using the Mortality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mortality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tu, Y. (2000). How robust is the Internet? Nature, 406(6794), 353–354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Strain, A. J., & Neuberger, J. M. (2002). A bioartificial liver--state of the art. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 1005–1009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gandy, S., Naslund, J., & Nordstedt, C. (2001). Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular consequences of presenilin-1 mutation. Nature, 411(6838), 654–656.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Valentine, D. L., Kessler, J. D., Redmond, M. C., Mendes, S. D., Heintz, M. B., Farwell, C., … Villanueva, C. J. (2010). Propane respiration jump-starts microbial response to a deep oil spill. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6001), 208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, M. B. (2014). Compendium of Organic Synthetic Methods: Smith/Compendium. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Breitner, M. H., Denk, G., & Rentrop, P. (Eds.). (2008). From Nano to Space: Applied Mathematics Inspired by Roland Bulirsch. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Haddad, M. R., Baazaoui, H., Aufaure, M. A., Claramunt, C., Lechevallier, Y., & Ghezala, H. B. (2009). Towards an Integration of Space and Accessibility in Web Personalization. In J. D. Carswell, A. S. Fotheringham, & G. McArdle (Eds.), Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 9th International Symposium, W2GIS 2009, Maynooth, Ireland, December 7-8, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 39–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mortality.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 17). The Uncomfortable Truth About The Tiger Trade Ban. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Information Technology: DHS Needs to Enhance Management of Cost and Schedule for Major Investments (No. GAO-12-904). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stott, N. M. (2012). Beta cell compensatory factors in nicotinic acid-induced insulin resistance (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, October 23). A Chilly Reception. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tu, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Strain & Neuberger, 2002; Tu, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strain & Neuberger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gandy, Naslund, & Nordstedt, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Valentine et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMortality
AbbreviationMortality (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-6275
ISSN (online)1469-9885
Religious studies
Health(social science)

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