How to format your references using the Mortality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mortality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGraw, R. (2004). Humidity, ice, and nitric acid. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 961–963; author reply 961-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, B. G., & Goller, F. (2004). Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5657), 544–546.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, Y., Wang, W., & Kirschner, M. W. (2015). Specificity of the anaphase-promoting complex: a single-molecule study. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6231), 1248737.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ho, H.-N., Iwai, D., Yoshikawa, Y., Watanabe, J., & Nishida, S. (2014). Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object. Scientific Reports, 4, 5527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crighton, D. A., & Towl, G. J. (2009). Psychology in Prisons. BPS Blackwell.
An edited book
Perez, H. D., Mitrovic, B., & Baron Van Evercooren, A. (Eds.). (2005). Opportunities and Challenges of the Therapies Targeting CNS Regeneration (Vol. 53). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ditterline, J., & Oakland, T. (2009). Relationships Between Adaptive Behavior and Impairment. In J. Naglieri & S. Goldstein (Eds.), Assessing Impairment: From Theory to Practice (pp. 31–48). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mortality.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, November 17). New Species Of Spider Looks Like A Leaf. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Space Project Testing: Uniform Policies and Added Controls Would Strengthen Testing Activities (NSIAD-91-248). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chanderbhan-Forde, S. (2010). Asian Indian mothers’ involvement in their children’s schooling: An analysis of social and cultural capital [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, May 4). ‘Amélie’ Musical to End Its Run on Broadway. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGraw, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cooper & Goller, 2004; McGraw, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper & Goller, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lu et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ho et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMortality
AbbreviationMortality (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-6275
ISSN (online)1469-9885
Religious studies
Health(social science)

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