How to format your references using the Mortality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mortality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker, J. (2014). Frederick Sanger (1918-2013). Nature, 505(7481), 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, K. A., & Cottrell, E. (2009). Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 605–607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peumans, P., Uchida, S., & Forrest, S. R. (2003). Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films. Nature, 425(6954), 158–162.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bromberg, K. D., Ma’ayan, A., Neves, S. R., & Iyengar, R. (2008). Design logic of a cannabinoid receptor signaling network that triggers neurite outgrowth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5878), 903–909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W., & Wan, M. (2016). Milling Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chaudhuri, K. R. (2011). Handbook of Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease (P. Martinez-Martin, P. Odin, & A. Antonini, Eds.). Springer Healthcare UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Fabbiano, F., Innamorato, E., Stanca, C., Fossaceca, R., & Carriero, A. (2010). Audit e metodi di approccio alla qualità. In L. Bonomo, A. Carriero, M. Centonze, & T. Scarabino (Eds.), Management in radiologia (pp. 67–75). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mortality.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, October 27). Common Swifts Stay Airborne For 10 Months Straight. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Highlights of an Expert Panel: The Benefits and Costs of Highway and Transit Investments (GAO-05-423SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cosma, A. C. (2019). Real-Time Individual Thermal Preferences Prediction Using Visual Sensors [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 23). Bright, Playful, Swiss. New York Times, E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walker, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kelley & Cottrell, 2009; Walker, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley & Cottrell, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Peumans et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bromberg et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMortality
AbbreviationMortality (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-6275
ISSN (online)1469-9885
Religious studies
Health(social science)

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