How to format your references using the Mortality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mortality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Broek, P. (2010). Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 453–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahnke, K., & Zahn, R. (2005). Southern Hemisphere water mass conversion linked with North Atlantic climate variability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5716), 1741–1746.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stine, A. R., Huybers, P., & Fung, I. Y. (2009). Changes in the phase of the annual cycle of surface temperature. Nature, 457(7228), 435–440.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Scott, T. F., Kowalski, B. A., Sullivan, A. C., Bowman, C. N., & McLeod, R. R. (2009). Two-color single-photon photoinitiation and photoinhibition for subdiffraction photolithography. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 913–917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molimard, J. (2016). Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sayigh, A. (Ed.). (2016). Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol II: Selected Topics from the World Renewable Energy Congress WREC 2014 (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wigle, D. A., & Jurisica, I. (2007). Molecular Subtypes of Cancer from Gene Expression Profiling. In I. Jurisica, D. A. Wigle, & B. Wong (Eds.), Cancer Informatics in the Post Genomic Era: Toward Information-Based Medicine (pp. 45–58). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mortality.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2017, January 21). High Blood Pressure May Protect Over-80s From Dementia. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Utilization at Aberdeen Proving Ground’s ADP Installation (LCD-76-125). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rhoads, E. P. (2006). Knowledge management practices in U.S. federal agencies: The catalyst for E-Government transformation [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kristof, N. D. (2011, January 27). Tussling Over Jesus. New York Times, A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van den Broek, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Pahnke & Zahn, 2005; van den Broek, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pahnke & Zahn, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Stine et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Scott et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMortality
AbbreviationMortality (Abingdon)
ISSN (print)1357-6275
ISSN (online)1469-9885
Religious studies
Health(social science)

Other styles