How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grätzel, M. (2001). Photoelectrochemical cells. Nature, 414(6861), 338–344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riskin, D. K., & Hermanson, J. W. (2005). Biomechanics: independent evolution of running in vampire bats. Nature, 434(7031), 292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Leizerson, I., Lipson, S. G., & Lyushnin, A. V. (2003). Wetting properties: When larger drops evaporate faster. Nature, 422(6930), 395–396.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gleckler, P. J., Wigley, T. M. L., Santer, B. D., Gregory, J. M., Achutarao, K., & Taylor, K. E. (2006). Volcanoes and climate: Krakatoa’s signature persists in the ocean. Nature, 439(7077), 675.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirsh, S. J. (2009). Media and Youth. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Kienzle, J. (Ed.). (2012). Models in Software Engineering: Workshops and Symposia at MODELS 2011, Wellington, New Zealand, October 16-21, 2011, Reports and Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7167). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gyurkó, L. G., & Lyons, T. J. (2011). Efficient and Practical Implementations of Cubature on Wiener Space. In D. Crisan (Ed.), Stochastic Analysis 2010 (pp. 73–111). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, May 8). Scientists Create Amazing 3D Cast Of Renowned Philosopher’s Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Schools and Libraries Program: Application and Invoice Review Procedures Need Strengthening (No. GAO-01-105). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klippel, S. A. (2005). The Celtic siren: A case study of William Sharp’s seduction experience in which the numinous other is understood and interpreted (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2000, May 29). It’s All in the Family as Princeton Goes for a Title. New York Times, p. D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grätzel 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Grätzel 2001; Riskin and Hermanson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riskin and Hermanson 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gleckler et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

Other styles