How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyatt, L. A. (2012). IBI* series winner. Personal plants: making botany meaningful by experimentation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6102), 1620–1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, R. L., & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (2000). Missing martian meteorites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5490), 273c–5c.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gung, Y., Panning, M., & Romanowicz, B. (2003). Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents. Nature, 422(6933), 707–711.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rebouissou, S., Amessou, M., Couchy, G., Poussin, K., Imbeaud, S., Pilati, C., et al. (2009). Frequent in-frame somatic deletions activate gp130 in inflammatory hepatocellular tumours. Nature, 457(7226), 200–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin, T. (2011). Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Kacsuk, P., Lovas, R., & Németh, Z. (Eds.). (2008). Distributed and Parallel Systems: In Focus: Desktop Grid Computing. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Escribano, A., & Pascual, R. (2008). Asymmetries in bid and ask responses to innovations in the trading process. In L. Bauwens, W. Pohlmeier, & D. Veredas (Eds.), High Frequency Financial Econometrics: Recent Developments (pp. 49–82). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 29). World Hunger Has Significantly Dropped Despite Population Growth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Significant Challenges in Protecting Federal Systems and Developing Analysis and Warning Capabilities (No. GAO-01-1132T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wosu, U. L. (2017). Geochemical Analysis of Late Pleistocene Sediments from Fossil Lake, Northern Lake County, Oregon (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, June 5). Ruling Helps Prosecutors In Death Penalty Cases. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyatt 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hyatt 2012; Taylor and Mittlefehldt 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taylor and Mittlefehldt 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Rebouissou et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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