How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, G. (2014). Cancer: Directions for the drivers. Nature, 512(7512), 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ponce de León, M. S., & Zollikofer, C. P. (2001). Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Nature, 412(6846), 534–538.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trainor, P. A., Ariza-McNaughton, L., & Krumlauf, R. (2002). Role of the isthmus and FGFs in resolving the paradox of neural crest plasticity and prepatterning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1288–1291.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Panigrahi, P., Parida, S., Nanda, N. C., Satpathy, R., Pradhan, L., Chandel, D. S., et al. (2018). Corrigendum: A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent sepsis among infants in rural India. Nature, 553(7687), 238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eichhorn, M. P. (2016). Natural Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yang, Y., & Ma, M. (Eds.). (2013). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Green Communications and Networks 2012 (GCN 2012): Volume 1 (Vol. 223). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Palmerino, C. R. (2013). The Composition of Space, Time and Matter According to Isaac Newton and John Keill. In D. Garber (Ed.), The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy (pp. 117–142). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, November 10). North America To Scale On Various Planets In Our Solar System. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Aviation Safety: Enhanced Requirements Can Improve Commuter Pilot Training (No. RCED-88-218). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D. (2017). A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017, April 7). Don’t Blame These Heroes for Slumping Sales. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson 2014; Ponce de León and Zollikofer 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ponce de León and Zollikofer 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Panigrahi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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