How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, A. (2008). American Physical Society meeting. Magnetic measurements hint at toastier superconductivity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5872), 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caliskan, S., & Laref, A. (2014). Spin transport properties of n-polyacene molecules (n = 1-15) connected to Ni surface electrodes: theoretical analysis. Scientific reports, 4, 7363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang, Y.-C., Wu, J.-Y., & Lin, M.-F. (2013). Electric field dependence of excitation spectra in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Scientific reports, 3, 1368.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tarantini, C., Kametani, F., Lee, S., Jiang, J., Weiss, J. D., Jaroszynski, J., et al. (2014). Development of very high Jc in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 thin films grown on CaF2. Scientific reports, 4, 7305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. (2013). Funding Atlas 2012. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hostettler, S., Gadgil, A., & Hazboun, E. (Eds.). (2015). Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South: Essential Technologies and Implementation Approaches. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hungr, O. (2007). Dynamics of Rapid Landslides. In K. Sassa, H. Fukuoka, F. Wang, & G. Wang (Eds.), Progress in Landslide Science (pp. 47–57). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, January 2). Identical genetics doesn’t mean identical behavior for bacteria. IFLScience. IFLScience.’t-mean-identical-behavior-bacteria/. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Comparison of States’ Highway Construction Costs (No. GAO-04-113R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ware, S. C. (2014). Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in older women: A modifiable lifestyle risk factor (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., & Stevenson, A. (2017, March 27). Doubt After Health Care Defeat Briefly Sends Stocks Tumbling. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cho 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Caliskan and Laref 2014; Cho 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caliskan and Laref 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Tarantini et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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