How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pogue, B. W. (2014). Technology: ultrafast imaging takes on a new design. Nature, 516(7529), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitan, D. R., & Ferrell, D. L. (2006). Selection on gamete recognition proteins depends on sex, density, and genotype frequency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), 267–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fernandes, C. C., Podos, J., & Lundberg, J. G. (2004). Amazonian ecology: tributaries enhance the diversity of electric fishes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5692), 1960–1962.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Michel, T., Reichhart, J. M., Hoffmann, J. A., & Royet, J. (2001). Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature, 414(6865), 756–759.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, A. J. (2014). Markets for Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Grofman, B., Trechsel, A. H., & Franklin, M. (Eds.). (2014). The Internet and Democracy in Global Perspective: Voters, Candidates, Parties, and Social Movements (Vol. 31). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jansen, T., & Van Hecke, S. (2011). Chapter Four: Eastward Enlargement. In S. Van Hecke (Ed.), At Europe’s Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People’s Party (pp. 67–83). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 24). Why Is The Sun’s Outer Layer 200 Times Hotter Than Its Surface? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Aviation Security: Posting Notices at Domestic Airports (No. RCED-97-88R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner, M. (2009). An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, October 2). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: News Analysis; The Center of Attention. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pogue 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Levitan and Ferrell 2006; Pogue 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levitan and Ferrell 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Michel et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

Other styles