How to format your references using the Morphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Morphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, D. A. B. (2015). Applied Optics. Sorting out light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6229), 1423–1424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo, M.-T., & Lee, W.-C. (2014). Detecting a weak association by testing its multiple perturbations: a data mining approach. Scientific reports, 4, 5081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui, G., Zhang, M., & Zou, G. (2013). Resonant tunneling modulation in quasi-2D Cu(2)O/SnO(2) p-n horizontal-multi-layer heterostructure for room temperature H(2)S sensor application. Scientific reports, 3, 1250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., He, Y., Kong, X., An, Z., et al. (2005). The Holocene Asian monsoon: links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723), 854–857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda, G., & El Hami, A. (2016). Reliability in Biomechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kamm, J., & Neumann, B. (Eds.). (2016). British TV Comedies: Cultural Concepts, Contexts and Controversies. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghergu, M. (2013). Singular Semilinear Elliptic Equations with Subquadratic Gradient Terms. In M. Reissig & M. Ruzhansky (Eds.), Progress in Partial Differential Equations: Asymptotic Profiles, Regularity and Well-Posedness (pp. 75–91). Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Morphology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, June 7). Scientists Just Dealt A Major Blow To The Search For Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Environmental Protection: Bibliography of GAO Documents, August 1988-April 1990 (No. RCED-90-228). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheim, J. N. (2017). Examination of Oncology Summer Camp Attendance, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Perceived Social Support Among Pediatric Cancer Patients and Siblings (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 1). A Manager Who Exceeded His Own Expectations. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lo and Lee 2014; Miller 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lo and Lee 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMorphology
ISSN (print)1871-5621
ISSN (online)1871-5656
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics

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