How to format your references using the Monash Bioethics Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Monash Bioethics Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pusey, James. 2009. Global Darwin: Revolutionary road. Nature 462: 162–163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peng, Chong, and Feng Gao. 2014. Protein localization analysis of essential genes in prokaryotes. Scientific reports 4: 6001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Theise, Neil D., Diane S. Krause, and Saul Sharkis. 2003. Comment on “Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 1317; author reply 1317.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Prakash, B., G. J. Praefcke, L. Renault, A. Wittinghofer, and C. Herrmann. 2000. Structure of human guanylate-binding protein 1 representing a unique class of GTP-binding proteins. Nature 403: 567–571.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu, Emil. 2011. Design of Buildings for Wind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Golzarian, Jafar, Shiliang Sun, and M. J. Sharafuddin, ed. 2006. Vascular Embolotherapy: A Comprehensive Approach Volume 2 Oncology, Trauma, Gene Therapy, Vascular Malformations, and Neck. Medical Radiology, Diagnostic Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Karmakar, Ashmita. 2015. E-Governance and Its Role in Infrastructure Services of UAE, Case Study—Dubai. In E-Governance for Smart Cities, ed. T. M. Vinod Kumar, 81–97. Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Monash Bioethics Review.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. Sexy Peacocks Fly Fine, Even With Extravagant Tails. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Utilization of Consultants, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. B-168033. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong, Hea Jin. 2017. Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. Listen In, With the Bird Man of Classical. New York Times, May 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pusey 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Pusey 2009; Peng and Gao 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peng and Gao 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Prakash et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMonash Bioethics Review
AbbreviationMonash Bioeth. Rev.
ISSN (print)1321-2753
ISSN (online)1836-6716
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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