How to format your references using the Monash Bioethics Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Monash Bioethics Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleppner, Daniel. 2006. Physics. A more precise fine structure constant. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 448–449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roach, Michael, and Henry Sauermann. 2015. ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Founders and joiners. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348: 1200–1201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tahir, M., A. MacKinnon, and U. Schwingenschlögl. 2014. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems. Scientific reports 4: 4035.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wolf, S. A., D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, and D. M. Treger. 2001. Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 1488–1495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers, Ute. 2004. RNA Interference in Practice. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Boulic, Ronan, Yiorgos Chrysanthou, and Taku Komura, ed. 2010. Motion in Games: Third International Conference, MIG 2010, Utrecht, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6459. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tiebosch, Marjolein H., Golnar Karimian, and Han Moshage. 2015. Oxidative Stress and Hepatocellular Injury. In Studies on Hepatic Disorders, ed. Emanuele Albano and Maurizio Parola, 99–112. Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Monash Bioethics Review.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Bee Battles: Why Our Native Pollinators Are Losing The War. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 1.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Information Technology: Federal Laws, Regulations, and Mandatory Standards to Securing Private Sector Information Technology Systems and Data in Critical Infrastructure Sectors. GAO-08-1075R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, Melissa M. 2017. An Examination of the Proportion of Special Education Students in Single-Parent Homes in Comparison to Regular Education Students in Similar Households. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. Many Feet Shall Be Shod. New York Times, April 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleppner 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kleppner 2006; Roach and Sauermann 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roach and Sauermann 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolf et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMonash Bioethics Review
AbbreviationMonash Bioeth. Rev.
ISSN (print)1321-2753
ISSN (online)1836-6716
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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