How to format your references using the Monash Bioethics Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Monash Bioethics Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, Victor R. 2002. Earth sciences. The study of superfloods. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 2379–2380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papavasiliou, F. N., and D. G. Schatz. 2000. Cell-cycle-regulated DNA double-stranded breaks in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Nature 408: 216–221.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, C., M. Shim, and P. Guyot-Sionnest. 2001. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291: 2390–2392.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Richardson, Curtis J., Peter Reiss, Najah A. Hussain, Azzam J. Alwash, and Douglas J. Pool. 2005. The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1307–1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, Dave. 2007. TKO Management! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Knölker, Hans-Joachim, ed. 2012. Alkaloid Synthesis. Vol. 309. Topics in Current Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benesty, Jacob, Jingdong Chen, and Emanuël A. P. Habets. 2012. Multichannel Speech Enhancement with Filters. In Speech Enhancement in the STFT Domain, ed. Jingdong Chen and Emanuël A. P. Habets, 77–92. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Monash Bioethics Review.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. Penis-Less Reptile Unravels Mystery Of Phallic Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 29.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Spending Grant Funds More Efficiently Could Save Millions. PSAD-80-58. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tom, Darielle M. 2012. Impact on achievement with ST math after school instruction. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard, Anne. 2016. Wary of Russian Guarantees, Residents Are Staying Put in Aleppo. New York Times, October 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Papavasiliou and Schatz 2000; Baker 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papavasiliou and Schatz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Richardson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMonash Bioethics Review
AbbreviationMonash Bioeth. Rev.
ISSN (print)1321-2753
ISSN (online)1836-6716
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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