How to format your references using the Molecular Vision citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Vision. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer T. Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models. Nature. 2014;515(7527):338-339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu CY, Bard AJ. Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film. Nature. 2002;418(6894):162-164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun L, Wang J, Bonaccurso E. Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1991.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu J, Hu K, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Human induced pluripotent stem cells free of vector and transgene sequences. Science. 2009;324(5928):797-801.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiorenzani S, Ravelli S, Edoli E. The Handbook of Energy Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Královič R, Niwiński D, eds. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2009: 34th International Symposium, MFCS 2009, Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia, August 24-28, 2009. Proceedings. Vol 5734. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Gorbachev DV. Multidimensional Extremal Logan’s and Bohman’s Problems. In: Ruzhansky M, Tikhonov S, eds. Methods of Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory. Applied and Numerical Harmonic Analysis. Springer International Publishing; 2016:43-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Vision.

Blog post
Andrew E. Smartphone Microscope Diagnoses Parasitic Worm Infection. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Capitation Support and Its Role in the Operation of Medical Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pitron JE. The Influence of Exemplary Followership on Organizational Performance: A Phenomenological Approach. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Parents Say Stable’s New Site Means Dust and Distraction for Children. New York Times. October 22, 2000:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Vision
ISSN (online)1090-0535

Other styles