How to format your references using the Molecular Medicine Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Medicine Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horvat M: Science in Europe. The new framework for EU research and innovation. Science 334: 1066–1068, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hibberd JM and Quick WP: Characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in stems and petioles of C3 flowering plants. Nature 415: 451–454, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaufman TC, Severson DW and Robinson GE: The Anopheles genome and comparative insect genomics. Science 298: 97–98, 2002.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee K, Jessop H, Suswillo R, Zaman G and Lanyon L: Endocrinology: bone adaptation requires oestrogen receptor-alpha. Nature 424: 389, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell RS and Cosner C: Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2004.
An edited book
Mansourian S: Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees. (Vallauri D and Dudley N (eds.)). Springer, New York, NY, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma Y, Deng Q, Wang X, Liu J and Zhang H: Keyword-Based Semantic Analysis of Microblog for Public Opinion Study in Online Collective Behaviors. In: Web-Age Information Management: WAIM 2014 International Workshops: BigEM, HardBD, DaNoS, HRSUNE, BIDASYS, Macau, China, June 16-18, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Chen Y, Balke W-T, Xu J, et al. (eds.) Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp44–55, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Medicine Reports.

Blog post
Luntz S: Mysterious Lake Appears In The Middle Of The Desert Without Explanation. IFLScience, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s Fiscal Years 1998 and 1997 Financial Statements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller DB: Nurse educators’ leadership styles and nurse graduates’ licensure passage rates., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK: World Business Briefing | Europe: Russia: Genetics Rule Considered. New York Times: W1, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Medicine Reports
AbbreviationMol. Med. Rep.
ISSN (print)1791-2997
ISSN (online)1791-3004
Cancer Research
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

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