How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bollen, M., 2015. Cell cycle: It takes three to find the exit. Nature 517, 29–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walton, G.M., Cohen, G.L., 2011. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science 331, 1447–1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmet, P., Alberti, K.G., Shaw, J., 2001. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 414, 782–787.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pallé, E., Osorio, M.R.Z., Barrena, R., Montañés-Rodríguez, P., Martín, E.L., 2009. Earth’s transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations. Nature 459, 814–816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay, J., Tasman, A., 2006. Essentials of Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Szego, K. (Ed.), 2012. The Plasma Environment of Venus, Mars, and Titan, Space Sciences Series of ISSI. Springer US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Klemm, M., Duran, A., Tian, X., Saito, H., Caballero, D., Martorell, X., 2012. Extending OpenMP* with Vector Constructs for Modern Multicore SIMD Architectures, in: Chapman, B.M., Massaioli, F., Müller, M.S., Rorro, M. (Eds.), OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. New Evidence Suggests Humans May Have Pushed The “Hobbit” People To Extinction [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts (No. HEHS-96-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar, A., 2012. Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1998. The Magical Mystery Block. New York Times 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bollen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bollen, 2015; Walton and Cohen, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walton and Cohen, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pallé et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

Other styles