How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charlesworth, B., 2010. Evolution. Variation catches a ride. Science 330, 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lane, N., Martin, W., 2010. The energetics of genome complexity. Nature 467, 929–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kimchi, T., Xu, J., Dulac, C., 2007. A functional circuit underlying male sexual behaviour in the female mouse brain. Nature 448, 1009–1014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Horsley, S.A.R., Hooper, I.R., Mitchell-Thomas, R.C., Quevedo-Teruel, O., 2014. Removing singular refractive indices with sculpted surfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 4876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkataraman, K., 2015. Design of Jigs, Fixtures and Press Tools. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Haberfeld, M.R., Sheehan, D. (Eds.), 2013. Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker, R.S.J.D., Habgood, M.P.J., Ainsworth, S.E., Corbett, A.T., 2007. Modeling the Acquisition of Fluent Skill in Educational Action Games, in: Conati, C., McCoy, K., Paliouras, G. (Eds.), User Modeling 2007: 11th International Conference, UM 2007, Corfu, Greece, July 25-29, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 17–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Drug Could Rejuvenate Aging Brain And Muscle Tissue [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Aviation Security: Long-Standing Problems Impair Airport Screeners’ Performance (No. RCED-00-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, S., 2014. Psychological resilience, daily stressors, and implications for physical activity levels in mothers with young children (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. Weather Doesn’t Dampen Latest Heart-Stopper in the Bronx. New York Times SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charlesworth, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Charlesworth, 2010; Lane and Martin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lane and Martin, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Horsley et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

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