How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Novick, R.P., 2008. Medicine. Combating impervious bugs. Science 319, 910–911.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, R., Cresswell, P., 2010. Defective cross-presentation of viral antigens in GILT-free mice. Science 328, 1394–1398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitrovica, J.X., Gomez, N., Clark, P.U., 2009. The sea-level fingerprint of West Antarctic collapse. Science 323, 753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barwick, B., Park, H.S., Kwon, O.-H., Baskin, J.S., Zewail, A.H., 2008. 4D imaging of transient structures and morphologies in ultrafast electron microscopy. Science 322, 1227–1231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, V., Al-Numan, B., 2011. Corrosion Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Posada de la Paz, M., Groft, S.C. (Eds.), 2010. Rare Diseases Epidemiology, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Ribeiro, G., Duivesteijn, W., Soares, C., Knobbe, A., 2012. Multilayer Perceptron for Label Ranking, in: Villa, A.E.P., Duch, W., Érdi, P., Masulli, F., Palm, G. (Eds.), Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2012: 22nd International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 11-14, 2012, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Globally Important Iraqi Marshes Designated As A World Heritage Site [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Special Education: Financing Health and Educational Services for Handicapped Children (No. HRD-86-62BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pyzdrowski, J.E., 2017. Experiences of Advisors/Mentors in Developing Leadership Emergence in a Post Conflict, Marginalized Society: A Phenomenological Study (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Tennis Divided by Wild Cards for Sharapova. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Novick, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Novick, 2008; Singh and Cresswell, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Cresswell, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Barwick et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

Other styles