How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M., 2011. Vaccines: Know your enemy. Nature 471, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasello, M., Kaminski, J., 2009. Behavior. Like infant, like dog. Science 325, 1213–1214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Al-Zaid, F.S., Alhader, A.A., Al-Ayadhi, L.Y., 2014. Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwab, J.M., Chiang, N., Arita, M., Serhan, C.N., 2007. Resolvin E1 and protectin D1 activate inflammation-resolution programmes. Nature 447, 869–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brandimarte, P., 2014. Handbook in Monte Carlo Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tokano, T. (Ed.), 2005. Water on Mars and Life, Advances in Astrobiology and Biogeophysics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mallikarjuna, K., Sushma, N.J., Deva Prasad Raju, B., 2013. Novel, Fast, Bio-Derivatized Sonochemical Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Piper betle Leaf Broth as a Reducing and Capping Agent, in: Giri, P.K., Goswami, D.K., Perumal, A. (Eds.), Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Dec 8-10, 2011, Guwahati, India, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Buzz Aldrin Describes His Encounter With A “UFO” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Steps Remain in Incorporating Lessons Learned from Other Satellite Programs (No. GAO-06-993). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladd, R.J., 2014. A Study of Alternative Education Programs in the State of Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mancuso, A., Mueller, B., 2015. 2 Workers Die When Backyard Fuel Tank Explodes in Westchester County. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2011; Tomasello and Kaminski, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomasello and Kaminski, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwab et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

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