How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C., 2006. Evolution. Reducible complexity. Science 312, 61–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padhi, A., Ma, L., 2014. Genetic and epidemiological insights into the emergence of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) across Asia and Africa. Sci. Rep. 4, 7040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kwak, S.-H., Shen, R., Schiefelbein, J., 2005. Positional signaling mediated by a receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis. Science 307, 1111–1113.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sahu, K.C., Casertano, S., Livio, M., Gilliland, R.L., Panagia, N., Albrow, M.D., Potter, M., 2001. Gravitational microlensing by low-mass objects in the globular cluster M22. Nature 411, 1022–1024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das, J.C., 2017. Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nambiar, R., Poess, M. (Eds.), 2009. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking: First TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2009, Lyon, France, August 24-28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lo Nigro, G., Bruccoleri, M., La Commare, U., 2005. Negotiation Models in Manufacturing E-Marketplaces, in: Perrone, G., Bruccoleri, M., Renna, P. (Eds.), Designing and Evaluating Value Added Services in Manufacturing E-Market Places. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 97–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Scientist Claims He Has Found Evidence Of Other Universes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. National Airspace System: Review of FAA’s Spending for Operations (No. RCED/OGC/AIMD-99-222R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zavarella, C.A., 2008. Computer -based instruction and remedial mathematics: A study of student retention at a Florida community college (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L., 2017. Phone Surveillance, Falsehoods and Anonymous Sources. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Adami, 2006; Padhi and Ma, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padhi and Ma, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sahu et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

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