How to format your references using the Molecular Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins, M., 2003. Prospects for biodiversity. Science 302, 1175–1177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P.G., de Vargas, C., 2004. Genomics and evolution. Shotgun sequencing in the sea: a blast from the past? Science 304, 58–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runguphan, W., Qu, X., O’Connor, S.E., 2010. Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism. Nature 468, 461–464.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Macdonald, G.M., Beilman, D.W., Kremenetski, K.V., Sheng, Y., Smith, L.C., Velichko, A.A., 2006. Rapid early development of circumarctic peatlands and atmospheric CH4 and CO2 variations. Science 314, 285–288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods, D.R., 2005. Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Perroud, T., 2013. Enterprise Architecture Patterns: Practical Solutions for Recurring IT-Architecture Problems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch, M., 2015. A Framework for Thinking About Oppression and Conflict, in: Deutsch, M. (Ed.), Morton Deutsch: A Pioneer in Developing Peace Psychology, SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Immunology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. How We Are Listening To The Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. An Analysis of Concerns in Federal Education Programs: Duplication of Services and Administrative Costs (No. HRD-80-18). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, M., 2008. A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 1991. Spending Your Dollars in Europe: Soviet Union; Prices Are Wildly Irrational, but There Is Room to Maneuver. New York Times 526.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jenkins, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski and de Vargas, 2004; Jenkins, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falkowski and de Vargas, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Macdonald et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Immunology
AbbreviationMol. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0161-5890
ScopeMolecular Biology

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